Susiana


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Susiana:

see ElamElam
, ancient country of Asia, N of the Persian Gulf and E of the Tigris, now in W Iran. A civilization seems to have been established there very early, probably in the late 4th millennium B.C. The capital was Susa, and the country is sometimes called Susiana.
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References in periodicals archive ?
That work uncovered several levels of Late Middle to Late Susiana (4800-4400 B.C.) architecture and, below that, several levels of Formative and Archaic Susiana (7000-6600 B.C.) habitation.
He excavated a 5x5 meter square and a stratigraphic trench about 1.5x8 meters in extent, in deposits dating from the earliest stage of the Archaic Susiana down through the Aceramic Neolithic to virgin soil.
(This is primarily a problem for material from the 1977-78 excavation seasons, where Alizadeh did not have access to the actual artifacts.) For example, three curious tablet-like objects from Middle Susiana levels are shown in figure 37 as about 4 cm long, but on plate 20 they appear to be closer to 6 cm in size.
Lambert, "The Akkadianization of Susiana under the Sukkalmahs," in Mesopotamie et Elam: Actes de la XXXVIe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Gand, 10-14 juillet 1989, MHEOP 1 (Gent, 1991): 53-56.
But it is certainly interesting, particularly the discussion of early texts and disparate numerical systems in Mesopotamian and Susiana. The conflicting positions of scholars interpreting the presence of Mesopotamian material culture in Susiana in the Late Uruk/Susa II period are presented: swift colonization and political domination by southern Mesopotamia versus gradual cultural ascendancy of a southern Mesopotamia element already part of the local population.
The site appears to have been continually occupied over the next several millennia, and reached a size of about 13-15 hectares at the end of the Middle Susiana Period.
The chapters on the prehistoric periods are less easy to follow, since they focus primarily on the stylistic features of the various painted ceramic assemblages and their comparisons with other sites within Susiana, Mesopotamia, and the Iranian plateau.
In his concluding chapter, he mentions that recent studies of trade and communication routes indicate that a major axis of circulation joined the Susiana plain, the Zagros piedmont, the Tigris valley, and the Jezireh, thus essentially bypassing southern Mesopotamia, which, hence, appears marginal from this viewpoint.
Between prehistoric times and late in the third millennium B.C., human figurines seem to have gone out of fashion in both Mesopotamia and Susiana (p.
The earliest figurines modeled in clay from Susiana are the T-shaped figurines from Tepe Tulaii (Hole 1974: fig.
The first part of his book provides an excellent and readable account of the recent discoveries (chapter two: "Uruk Sites in the Susiana Plain"; chapters three and four: "Uruk Settlements in the Syro-Mesopotamian Plain and Surrounding Highlands" and their function).
Archaeological work outside the "heartland" is producing important new data regarding Ubaid cultures (see Berman and Pollock on the Susiana plain, Henrickson on the central Zagros highlands, Frifelt on the Gulf area and Akkermans and Thuesen on northern Mesopotamia and Syria).