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Sutlej(sŭt`lĕj), longest of the five rivers of the PunjabPunjab
[Pers.,=five rivers], historic region in the NW of the Indian subcontinent. Since 1947 it has been separated into an Indian state and a Pakistani province bearing the same name. The Indus River bounds the region in part of the west and the Yamuna River in part of the east.
..... Click the link for more information. , c.900 mi (1,450 km) long, rising in the Kailas Range, SW Tibet region of China, and flowing generally west, meandering through the Himalayas in India, then onto the Punjab plain where it receives the BeasBeas
, river, 250 mi (402 km) long, rising in the Himalayas and flowing generally SW through the fertile Kulu Valley of Himachal Pradesh and the Shiwalik Range to join the Sutlej River, S of Amritsar, N India.
..... Click the link for more information. River and forms part of the India-Pakistan border; continuing into Pakistan, it is joined by the ChenabChenab
, one of the "five rivers" of the Punjab, 675 mi (1,086 km) long, rising in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and flowing NW through the Kashmir Himalayas, then SW through Pakistani Punjab to join the Sutlej River. The Ravi and Jhelum rivers are the chief tributaries.
..... Click the link for more information. River (which received the JhelumJhelum
, westernmost of the five rivers of the Punjab, 480 mi (772 km) long. Rising in Jammu and Kashmir, India, it flows W through the Vale of Kashmir, S through Pakistan-occupied foothills, then SW across Punjab to the Chenab River.
..... Click the link for more information. and RaviRavi
, one of the five rivers of the Punjab, 475 mi (764 km) long, rising in the Himalayas, NW India, and flowing generally W into Pakistan, past Lahore, to join the Chenab River, NE Pakistan.
..... Click the link for more information. rivers). The combined stream, the Panjnad, channels the collected waters of all five rivers of the Punjab into the IndusIndus
, chief river of Pakistan, c.1,900 mi (3,060 km) long, rising in the Kailas range in the Tibetan Himalayas, and flowing W across Jammu and Kashmir, India, then SW through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea SE of Karachi.
..... Click the link for more information. River. The Sutlej is extensively used for irrigation; many large canals branch from it. Bhakra Dam (750 ft/229 m) in Punjab state, N India, impounds water for irrigation and power production (450,000-kW capacity). Until the Sikh Wars in the 1840s, the Sutlej was the border between the Sikh and British spheres of influence.
(called the Panjnad in the final section of the lower course), a river in Pakistan, India, and China; the largest tributary of the Indus River, which it joins from the left.
The Sutlej is approximately 1,500 km long and drains an area of 395,000 sq km. It rises in the Kailas Range and receives part of the runoff from Lakes Manasarowar and Langak. The upper course flows through a broad valley, which separates the Great Himalayas from the Kailas and Ladakh ranges. Then, flowing in a narrow gorge, the river cuts through the Great Himalayas and their southern spurs; here, the current is strong, and there are many rapids. At the city of Rupar, the Sutlej flows onto the plain of Punjab and continues across the plain to its mouth. The main tributaries, the Beas and Chenab rivers, flow in from the right.
The upper course is fed chiefly by snow and glaciers; elsewhere the river is fed predominantly by rain, chiefly the summer monsoons, and reaches maximum volume in July and August. The mean flow rate at Rupar is approximately 500 cu m per sec, and the maximum is about 20,000 cu m per sec. Below Rupar the flow rate decreases, since the river and its tributaries are used extensively for irrigation on the plain of Punjab.
Major irrigation canals from the Sutlej include the Dipalpur, Pakpattan, Panjnad, Sirhind, and Bikaner canals. During floods, the canals carry 100 to 300 cu m of water per sec. During high water, the Sutlej is navigable in some parts. The large Bhakra-Nangal hydraulic engineering complex has been built in India at the point where the river emerges from the mountains. The major cities on the Sutlej are Nangal and Phillaur in India and Bahawalpur in Pakistan.
A. P. MURANOV