Sutlej

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Sutlej

Sutlej (sŭtˈlĕj), longest of the five rivers of the Punjab, c.900 mi (1,450 km) long, rising in the Kailas Range, SW Tibet region of China, and flowing generally west, meandering through the Himalayas in India, then onto the Punjab plain where it receives the Beas River and forms part of the India-Pakistan border; continuing into Pakistan, it is joined by the Chenab River (which received the Jhelum and Ravi rivers). The combined stream, the Panjnad, channels the collected waters of all five rivers of the Punjab into the Indus River. The Sutlej is extensively used for irrigation; many large canals branch from it. Bhakra Dam (750 ft/229 m) in Punjab state, N India, impounds water for irrigation and power production (450,000-kW capacity). Until the Sikh Wars in the 1840s, the Sutlej was the border between the Sikh and British spheres of influence.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sutlej

 

(called the Panjnad in the final section of the lower course), a river in Pakistan, India, and China; the largest tributary of the Indus River, which it joins from the left.

The Sutlej is approximately 1,500 km long and drains an area of 395,000 sq km. It rises in the Kailas Range and receives part of the runoff from Lakes Manasarowar and Langak. The upper course flows through a broad valley, which separates the Great Himalayas from the Kailas and Ladakh ranges. Then, flowing in a narrow gorge, the river cuts through the Great Himalayas and their southern spurs; here, the current is strong, and there are many rapids. At the city of Rupar, the Sutlej flows onto the plain of Punjab and continues across the plain to its mouth. The main tributaries, the Beas and Chenab rivers, flow in from the right.

The upper course is fed chiefly by snow and glaciers; elsewhere the river is fed predominantly by rain, chiefly the summer monsoons, and reaches maximum volume in July and August. The mean flow rate at Rupar is approximately 500 cu m per sec, and the maximum is about 20,000 cu m per sec. Below Rupar the flow rate decreases, since the river and its tributaries are used extensively for irrigation on the plain of Punjab.

Major irrigation canals from the Sutlej include the Dipalpur, Pakpattan, Panjnad, Sirhind, and Bikaner canals. During floods, the canals carry 100 to 300 cu m of water per sec. During high water, the Sutlej is navigable in some parts. The large Bhakra-Nangal hydraulic engineering complex has been built in India at the point where the river emerges from the mountains. The major cities on the Sutlej are Nangal and Phillaur in India and Bahawalpur in Pakistan.

A. P. MURANOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sutlej

a river in S Asia, rising in SW Tibet and flowing west through the Himalayas: crosses Himachal Pradesh and the Punjab (India), enters Pakistan, and joins the Chenab west of Bahawalpur: the longest of the five rivers of the Punjab. Length: 1368 km (850 miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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Empirical constraints on extrusion mechanisms from the upper margin of an exhumed high-grade orogenic core, Sutlej valley, NW India.
In 1867, in India's Sutlej Valley, a single bird was discovered, so distinct that it became what science calls the "type specimen" of a new species: large-billed (anyway, large for its body length) reed warbler.
He established a prosperous state with reference to the economic stability through Sutlej Valley Project.
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Former Information Minister and PML-Q Senator Muhammad Ali Durrani on a point of order said that due to water scarcity in Sutlej river the people of Sutlej valley were facing great problems.