Sverdrup, Otto

Sverdrup, Otto

(ô`tō svĕr`dro͝op), 1855–1930, Norwegian arctic explorer. A companion of Fridtjof NansenNansen, Fridtjof
, 1861–1930, Norwegian arctic explorer, scientist, statesman, and humanitarian. The diversity of Nansen's interests is shown in his writings, which include Eskimo Life (1893), Closing-Nets for Vertical Hauls and for Vertical Towing (1915),
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 on the voyage across Greenland in 1888 and on Nansen's later (1893–96) polar expedition, Sverdrup was leader of an arctic expedition (1898–1902) that attempted to reach the North Pole by way of Smith Sound but failed because of ice in Kennedy Channel. However, valuable topographical observations were made in N Greenland; the unknown western part of Ellesmere Island was explored and charted, and Axel Heiberg Island and other areas were discovered. His New Land (tr. 1904) described this expedition. His later arctic expeditions included a voyage to the Kara Sea in 1920 and a search for the Italian explorer Umberto NobileNobile, Umberto
, 1885–1978, Italian aeronautical engineer and arctic explorer. He designed the dirigible Norge and piloted it in the Amundsen-Ellsworth flight over the North Pole in 1926.
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's Italia in 1928.

Sverdrup, Otto

 

Born Oct. 31, 1854, in Bindalseidet; died Nov. 26, 1930, in Oslo. Norwegian arctic navigator and explorer.

In 1888, Sverdrup and F. Nansen became the first to cross southern Greenland on skis. From 1893 to 1896, Sverdrup was captain of Nansen’s ship Fram. From 1898 to 1902 he led an expedition aboard the ship that traced and charted the entire western coast of Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago for the first time; led to the discovery of Axel Hei-berg, Ellef Ringnes, and Amund Ringnes islands and other islands of the group later named the Sverdrup Islands; and explored almost all the straits between the islands.

In 1914 and 1915, Sverdrup was in command of the Russian steamship Eklips, which was dispatched to search for G. Ia. Se-dov, V. A. Rusanov, and G. L. Brusilov. The ship wintered on the northwestern coast of the Taimyr Peninsula; in the autumn of 1915, Sverdrup raised the Russian flag over Uedinenie Island. In 1920, while commanding the Soviet icebreaker Sviatogor, Sverdrup freed the steamship Solovei Budimirovich, which had been carried by an ice drift from Cheshskaia Guba to the Kara Sea. The channel between Axel Heiberg and Meighen islands and also islands in the Kara and Lincoln seas were named after Sverdrup.

WORKS

Nyt land, vols. 1–2. Oslo, 1902–03.

REFERENCES

Nansen, F. “Fram” v Poliarnom more, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1956. (Translated from Norwegian.)
Taylor, A. Geographical Discovery and Exploration in the Queen Elizabethlslands. Ottawa, 1955.
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