Swedish


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.

Swedish

the official language of Sweden, belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European family: one of the two official languages of Finland

Swedish

 

the language of the Swedes; the official language of Sweden and one of the two official languages of Finland. According to a 1975 estimate, Swedish is spoken in Sweden, Finland, the USA, and Canada by 10 million people. It belongs to the Scandinavian group of the Germanic languages.

Swedish, which emerged as an independent language from the Common Scandinavian parent language between the ninth and 11th centuries, has six dialect groups: the South Swedish dialects of the Skåne region, the Göta dialects of southwestern Sweden, the Svea dialects of central Sweden, the Norrland dialects of northern Sweden, the East Swedish dialects of the eastern coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, and the Gutnish (Gotlandish) dialect of the island of Gotland. The modern literary language evolved in the 16th and 17th centuries as a result of a complex interaction of several dialects (the Svea dialects playing a major role) with the Old Swedish written language, which had developed in the 14th century from the Göta dialects.

In Swedish, sounds are distinguished as short or long; there are no diphthongs. Other phonological features include a musical word accent and a phonemic balance within syllables. Nouns, which are divided into six classes, are marked for gender (common or neuter), number (singular or plural), and case (common or genitive). The definite article may be added, in the form of a suffix, to the noun. Verbs, which are generally not inflected for person and number, fall into four conjugational paradigms. The verb system includes several forms of the infinitive and an uninflected form—the supine.

The earliest written texts in Swedish are runic inscriptions on stone and date from the ninth to the early 12th century. The oldest surviving manuscripts are a fragment from the legal code known as the Västgötalagen (The Law of West Gotland; mid-13th century), a manuscript of the code (1280), and 14th-century legal, religious, and poetic texts. The Swedish writing system uses the Latin alphabet with four additional letters. In Swedish, the spelling of a word is not a precise guide to its pronunciation.

REFERENCES

Wessén, E. Skandinavskie iazyki. Moscow, 1949. (Translated from Swedish.)
Maslova-Lashanskaia, S. S. Shvedskii iazyk, part 1. Leningrad, 1953.
Steblin-Kamenskii, M. I. Istoriia skandinavskikh iazykov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1953.
Milanova, D. E. Shvedsko-russkiislovar’, 4th ed. Moscow, 1973.
Wellander, E. Riktig Svenska, 3rd ed. Stockholm, 1965.
Beckman, N. Svensk språklära. Stockholm, 1964.
Svenska akademiens ordbok (SAOB). Lund, 1893—.
Östergren, O. Nusvensk ordbok. Stockholm, 1919—.

G. I. ANDREEVA

References in periodicals archive ?
It was really amazing." Just days after receiving spine surgery with robotic guidance at Swedish, he was able to walk with less pain and has continued to improve dramatically in the weeks since his surgery.
Johansson's visit focused on deepening the Swedish-Egyptian trade relation and Swedish efforts to support Egypt in its development agenda.
Later, Shehryar Khan Afridi took a detailed tour of the Swedish companies' stalls and appreciated the strong and broad Swedish business presence in Pakistan.
These Swedish Depositary Receipts are traded in the Large Cap segment on Nasdaq Stockholm under the ticker symbol 'VNE SDB' and with the ISIN code SE0011115963.
Lindestam reconfirmed the excellent bilateral relations between Qatar and Sweden during the courtesy visit and she congratulated Qatar for hosting such an important and extensive IPU meeting, according to a media statement issued by Swedish ambassador Ewa Polano.
Swedish companies and business entrepreneurs presented their solutions to areas such as water and waste management, clean air and energy, and connectivity.
During the meeting, Swedish Ambassador Peter Erikson emphasized that despite the negative impact of sanctions on bilateral cooperation and the current political situation, the Swedish side is ready for dialogue and looks forward to further development of relations in the sphere of industrial cooperation between Russia and Sweden.
"India is a rather new market for Swedish sawn timber, but the Swedish sawmill industry experiences an increased interest for sawn timber from Sweden from the Indian wood processing industry.
The dinner will feature Swedish meatballs and gravy, mashed potatoes, vegetables, lingonberries, Swedish rye bread and dessert.
The image of 'Swedish sin' has its roots in Swedish cinema of the 1950s and '60s, which saw the birth and success of films such as One Summer of Happiness, Summer with Monika, I Am Curious (Yellow), as well as in a subsequent wave of sex films in the 1960s and early 70's.
The Swedish Musical Heritage will make music from several centuries available to musicians for free, both in Sweden and abroad.
Soprano and University of Madison-Wisconsin professor Mimmi Fulmer has cultivated a lifelong fascination with Scandinavian song, drawing on her own upbringing as the granddaughter of Swedish and Finnish immigrants.

Full browser ?