Swedish language


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Swedish language,

member of the North Germanic, or Scandinavian, group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-EuropeanIndo-European,
family of languages having more speakers than any other language family. It is estimated that approximately half the world's population speaks an Indo-European tongue as a first language.
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 family of languages. It is the official language of Sweden and one of the official languages of Finland, and it is spoken by about 9 million people: 8,500,000 in Sweden and 500,000 elsewhere, chiefly in Finland, Norway, and Estonia. A descendant of Old Norse (see Germanic languagesGermanic languages,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by about 470 million people in many parts of the world, but chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
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; NorseNorse,
another name for the North Germanic, or Scandinavian, group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). The modern Norse languages—Danish, Faeroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish—all stem from an earlier
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), the Swedish language falls into two major periods historically: Old Swedish, the early form of the language (usually dated from the 9th cent. to the early 16th cent.), and New Swedish, the modern form of the language (since the early 16th cent.). The Swedish language underwent many changes during the Middle Ages but began to be standardized in the 16th cent. as a result of such events as the throwing off of Danish domination, the Reformation, and the translation of the Bible into Swedish. In 1786 the Swedish Academy was established to oversee the development of the language. Swedish absorbed a number of words from Low German in the Middle Ages, from High German in the 16th and 17th cent., from French in the 18th cent., and from English in the 20th cent. On the whole, Swedish grammar is simple. The noun has only the singular, possessive, and plural forms. There are two genders for nouns, a nonneuter (or common) class and a neuter class. The former includes masculine, feminine, and common nouns; the latter, nouns for such categories as countries and substances and also many abstract nouns. Swedish is noted for its musical quality. This results partly from the use of pitch accents, which sometimes serve to differentiate the meanings of homonyms. There is considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of Swedish. For example, a number of inflections used in literary Swedish are not employed in the spoken language. Until the early 13th cent., runesrunes,
ancient characters used in Teutonic, Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian inscriptions. They were probably first used by the East Goths (c.300), who are thought to have derived them from Helleno-Italic writing.
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 were used for recording Swedish, but thereafter (as Christianity took hold in Scandinavia) they began to be replaced by the Roman alphabet, to which three symbols, å, ä, and ö, have been added.

Bibliography

See G. Bergman, A Short History of the Swedish Language (tr. 1947); I. Björkhagen, Modern Swedish Grammar (9th ed. 1962); F. Frauchiger and W. R. van Buskirk, Spoken Swedish (1980).

References in periodicals archive ?
Roles that require Swedish language skills offer the highest average salary at PS54,890, well ahead of the national average advertised pay of PS33,993.
In the adult Swedish L2 learner context, Granberg (2001) used Oxford's (1990) 50-item Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) coupled with interviews to collect LLS use data from a single learner as part of a longitudinal, qualitative case study illustrating the Swedish language learning experience of the adult immigrant to Sweden.
Samres AB provides seven months of in-house Swedish language training for recruits in Dakar, who are paid CFA65,000 ($112) a month.
For her part, Swedish ambassador Ewa Polano said the Swedish language course will also offer some cultural understanding of Sweden, as well as Swedish food "to broaden the feeling for Sweden." "Swedish is a small language but if people learn it they can go around in the Nordic countries because all the Nordics understand the Scandinavian languages so we have close co-operation on that," she added.
That will not only allow renewed deliberation of Nobel-related issues; it will also facilitate the Swedish Academy's original task, which is centered on protecting "the purity, strength and majesty of the Swedish language."
The institution, founded by King Gustav III in 1786 to further the "purity, strength and sublimity of the Swedish language", was shaken in November when the French photographer Jean-Claude Arnault was accused of sexual assault or harassment by 18 women.
The Swedish Academy was founded by the Swedish King Gustav III in 1786 and has been a protector and promoter of Swedish language and literature ever since.
Provider of educational services AcadeMedia AB (STO:ACAD) announced on Wednesday that after a review of its subsidiary Hermods, which conducts Swedish language training (sfi) for the city of Malmo, it identified that Hermods Malmo has had a deficiency with regard to the contractual proportion of certified teachers.
She's also starting to get to grips with the Swedish language. "I'm not quite fluent yet but I'm getting better.
The documents include records of Red Cross from 1971 to 75 containing important information on the homecoming of the refugees, including those who were stranded in Pakistan during the war, documents of Rotarian International on refugees, original copies of the reports published in different international newspapers in the last 17 days of December in 1971 and some reports of the Venstakusten newspaper published in Swedish language, the release added.
In 19 he graduated from the Swedish language and literature at the University of Groningen and in the same year she joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA).

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