Swine Building

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Swine Building


a building used for housing hogs. Some specialized swine buildings house animals bred for the same practical use, whereas other buildings house swine of the same sex and age. There are buildings for farrowing sows (capacities of 50, 100, 150, and 200 sows), for boars used in breeding and for replacement boars, for weanling pigs (capacities of 1,200–1,800, with self-feeding systems), for barren and brood sows, for animals being fattened (capacities of 1,000 and 2,000, with group-keeping systems), and for young replacement pigs. Specialized blocks include fattening blocks and reproduction blocks, which are used for various groups of sow herds and weanling pigs. There are also blocks for housing animals of all age and sex groups during the complete cycle of pork production.

Swine buildings of all types are utilized in commercial swine breeding. They are usually rectangular single-story structures with standardized bays; sometimes buildings with more than one story are used. Animals are raised individually or in groups in pens or tiered cages. The area and dimensions of a building are determined by the technological design standards for swine-breeding farms: for barren and brood sows, 1.5 sq m per sow on commercial farms and 1.8 sq m per sow on pedigree farms; for weanling pigs grouped in pens containing as many as 30 pigs, 0.25–0.3 sq m per animal; for weanling pigs kept in tiered cages (three to five tiers), approximately 0.2 sq m; and swine being fattened and kept in group pens or tiered cages (two to three tiers), 0.5–0.7 sq m per animal. When swine are fed in the pens, the standard area of a pen is increased by 0.1–0.4 sq m. From front to back, an individual pen measures 2.4–2.5 m, and a group pen as much as 3.5 m; the lateral length takes into consideration the frontage needed for feeding the pigs. Crosswise and lengthwise feed and feed-and-dunging alleys (minimum width, 1.4 m) run between the rows of pens, as do discharge alleys (1.4–1.5 m in width) and service alleys (1.0 m in width). The floor slopes in the direction of the liquid drainage; thus lengthwise in the alleys the slope is 0.005–0.01 °, and crosswise in the alleys and pens the slope is 0.015–0.02°.

Other sections of a swine building, which are often larger than the pens, include compartments for storing equipment and bedding (if used), rooms for the attendants, and an area for weighing the animals. For artificial fertilization, reproduction blocks and specialized boar buildings are equipped with a main working area, a laboratory, an area for washing the animals, and a pen for fertilized animals.

Swine buildings are generally equipped with waterlines, ventilation, heating, a sewage system, and electric lighting. During fall and winter, suckling and weanling pigs are exposed to ultraviolet rays to artificially stimulate growth. In order to mechanize and automate production processes, including feeding, watering, and dung removal, swine buildings have been equipped with special equipment or systems of machines and mechanisms, for example, automatic feeders and waterers and hydraulic dung-flushing systems.

In connection with the transition to new pork production technology, large swine-breeding complexes are being constructed in many areas.


Spravochnik zootekhnika, 3rd ed., part 1. Moscow, 1969.
Spravochnik po mekhanizatsii rabot na zhivotnovodcheskikh fermakh. Edited by N. I. Mzhel’skii. Leningrad, 1972.
Kratkii zootekhnicheskii spravochnik. Moscow, 1975.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Spatial and temporal distributions of dust and ammonia concentrations in a swine building. Transactions of the ASABE 54(5):1873-1891.
A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has also been attempted to track the transport and distribution of PRRSV within a swine building (from the mouths of pigs to the exhaust fans), and compared with the readings from an optofluidic device.
Effects of repeated swine building exposures on normal na?ve subjects.
The overall goal of this research was to measure the spatial distribution and emission of TSP and N[H.sub.3] concentrations in a mechanically ventilated wean-to-finish swine building. Results of the aforementioned measurements were used in determining the minimum number of sampling locations required to adequately represent the average concentrations of pollutants in a swine building and in evaluating the performance of the ventilation system using the contaminant removal effectiveness index.
The ventilation system was custom designed so that it could deliver either totally cleaned air drawn from outside through an air cleaning unit (control condition) or emissions drawn from the exhaust fans of an adjacent swine building diluted with cleaned air (experimental condition).
He took the lead in developing standardized swine building plans and developed programs on proper ventilation, manure management, and other aspects of livestock systems design.
Identification and measurement of volatile compounds within a swine building and measurement of ammonia evolution rates from manure covered surfaces.
The plan for the swine buildings "is more designed for protecting the pigs than protecting the health of the prisoners," said Scott Medlock, director of the Texas Civil Rights Project's prisoners' rights program.
The unit remotely monitors poultry and layer houses, dairy buildings, greenhouses, hog and swine buildings and other facilities 24 hours a day, alerting managers when environmental conditions fluctuate, threatening livestock, personnel, and actual facility locations system tracks such conditions as temperature changes, power failures, timers, alarms, excess humidity, water seepage, floods, and intrusion.
However, continuously monitoring airflow with calibrated small vane anemometers (SVAs) immediately downstream of the fan impeller, has been a satisfactory solut ion at the swine buildings (Figure 2).
A complicating factor is dust particles, which adsorb and transport large amounts of odorous compounds and ammonia emitted from swine buildings.