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the religious law of Islam. As Islam makes no distinction between religion and life, Islamic law covers not only ritual but many aspects of life. The actual codification of canonic law is the result of the concurrent evolution of jurisprudence proper and the so-called science of the roots of jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh). A general agreement was reached, in the course of the formalization of Islam, as to the authority of four such roots: the Qur'an in its legislative segments; the example of the Prophet Muhammad as related in the hadith; the consensus of the Muslims (ijma), premised on a saying by Muhammad stipulating "My nation cannot agree on an error"; and reasoning by analogy (qiyas). Another important principle is ijtihad, the extension of sharia to situations neither covered by precedent nor explicable by analogy to other laws. These roots provide the means for the establishment of prescriptive codes of action and for the evaluation of individual and social behavior. The basic scheme for all actions is a fivefold division into obligatory, meritorious, permissible, reprehensible, and forbidden.

Numerous schools of jurisprudence emerged in the course of Islamic history. Four coexist today within Sunni Islam, with one or more dominant in particular areas—Maliki (N and W Africa), Hanafi (Turkic Asia), Shafii (Egypt, E Africa, SE Asia), and Hanbali (Saudi Arabia; see Ibn Hanbal, AhmadIbn Hanbal, Ahmad
, 780–855, Muslim jurist and theologian. His disciples founded the fourth of the four major Sunni schools of jurisprudence, the Hanbali. Ibn Hanbal's conception of law was principally influenced by hadith which led him to reject the officially sanctioned
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). While these schools of jurisprudence vary on certain rituals and practices, they are often perceived as complementary rather than mutually exclusive. Twelve-Imam Shiite jurisprudence is often referred to as Jafari. Islamic law is an important legal influence, to a greater or lesser degree, in nearly all nations with a Muslim majority population; the primary exception is Turkey, which has been a secular state since AtatürkAtatürk, Kemal
, 1881–1938, Turkish leader, founder of modern Turkey. He took the name in 1934 in place of his earlier name, Mustafa Kemal, when he ordered all Turks to adopt a surname; it is made up of the Turkish words Ata and Türk [father of the Turks].
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See study by S. Kadri (2012).



a city (since 1938) under oblast jurisdiction and the administrative center of Shar’ia Raion, Kostroma Oblast, RSFSR. Situated on the left bank of the Vetluga River. Railroad junction. Population, 26,000 (1974). Industry is represented by the Shar’iadrev Production Association, an experimental machine shop, a milk plant, a garment factory, a furniture factory, and a plant that manufactures reinforced-concrete structural members. There are also two logging and timber distribution establishments. Educational institutions include a pedagogical school, a medical school, and a sovkhoz technicum. The city has a museum of local lore and a people’s amateur theater.



(literally, “correct path,” “correct way of behaving”), the body of Islamic religious, ethical, and legal precepts, based on the Koran, sunna (sacred tradition), and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).

The sharia was developed in the Arabian Caliphate between the seventh and 12th centuries. In addition to precepts on the fundamental religious obligations of Muslims, it includes the norms of Islamic state, civil, criminal, and procedural law. The sharia is in force in countries where Islam is the state religion, and it is applied especially in the spheres of marriage, the family, and inheritance.

After the October Revolution of 1917, the Soviet government at first restricted the jurisdiction of the sharia and later eliminated sharia courts; those norms of the sharia that conflicted with Soviet laws were made inoperative. The norms of the sharia have no legal force in the USSR, and the precepts of the sharia are preserved only in the rituals and way of life of some Muslims.

In most foreign countries where the population professes Islam, the norms of the sharia have been incorporated into secular law. The sharia continues to be regarded as the source of Islamic law and one of the foundations of Muslim ideology.


, sheria
the body of doctrines that regulate the lives of those who profess Islam
References in periodicals archive ?
In Sharpe's method in 2010, it showed the best performance of Sharia mutual funds was by PNM Amanah Syariah with a value of 0.786 and the lowest performance was by Sam Sukuk Syariah Sejahtera with a value of 0.195.
(22) That politics predominates in determining syariah issues in Malaysia is evidenced by the federal government's past reluctance, before the electoral setback experienced by UMNO and BN in 2008, to institutionalize anti-apostasy laws despite getting wide support from the Islamic officialdom.
"Given Bank Panin Syariah's knowledge of local market and DIB's undisputed expertise in this fast growing segment, we see a massive opportunity for growth and expansion transforming what today is seen as a niche business into a more widely accepted form of banking within the country".
According to the IFL provisions, the syariah court may order the husband to pay nafkah to the wife or ex-wife.
Fund needed to open a new branch of BRI Syariah is around Rp1 billion--Rp1.5 billion that the cost for the expansion program would reach Rp70 billion--Rp 110 billion this year.
Judge Abdul Walid Abu Hassan of the Kuala Lumpur Syariah High Court fixed April 23 to decide on Dr Sanugi 's application to get a court order for Sri Wani to undergo a DNA test to verify her sex.
Women's groups, including Sisters in Islam (SIS), the group I belong to, hailed this as a long awaited move given the many problems that women face in the Syariah Courts, especially in matters related to the family.
'Only a judge can confirm a divorce after deciding that there is merit in the complaint filed by the couple at the Syariah Court.'
The Malacca Syariah Court imposed the penalties after Azizan Abu Bakar, 39, Anwar's former family chauffeur, and Norhayati Saad, 22, a college student, pleaded guilty to charges of "being in close proximity with a person other than one's spouse" and "attempting to engage in illicit sex."
The Government is ready to meet the Malaysia Muslim Lawyers' Association (PPMM) to discuss proposals on state enactments on the administration and division of inheritance be placed under the jurisdiction of the Syariah Court.
At the same time, Fitch has affirmed the National Rating on BTPN's subsidiary, PT Bank Tabungan Pensiunan Nasional Syariah (BTPN Syariah).