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Syktyvkar(sĭktĭfkär`), city (1989 pop. 232,000), capital of Komi Republic, NW European Russia, a port on the Sysola River near its entry into the Vychegda. Lumbering and the manufacture of wood products are the chief industries. Near Syktyvkar, on the Vychegda, is one of Russia's largest woodworking complexes. A settlement existed on the site of Syktyvkar by the late 16th cent. During the 17th and 18th cent. there was a flourishing grain and fur trade. The city, a center of Russian colonization in the late 18th and early 19th cent., was called Ust-Sysolsk until 1930.
(until 1930, Ust’-Sysol’sk), capital of the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Landing of the Sysola River at its confluence with the Vychegda River. Terminus of the 96-km railroad spur from the city of Mikun’. Population, 152,000 (1975; 24,000 in 1939,69,000 in 1959, and 125,000 in 1970).
Syktyvkar existed as the pogost (small settlement with a church and cemetery) of Ust’-Sysol’sk as early as 1586. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was part of Iarensk District. Ust’-Sysol’sk became a city in 1780 and administrative center of Ust’-Sysol’sk District of Vologda Province in 1802. In the second half of the 19th century, it was a place of political exile, and in 1905 exiles formed an RSDLP group in the city. Soviet power was established on Dec. 19, 1917 (Jan. 1, 1918). In 1921, the Autonomous Oblast of Komi was formed, with Ust’-Sysol’sk as its administrative center. In 1936, Syktyvkar became the capital of the Komi ASSR. The poet I. A. Kuratov, the founder of Komi literature, lived and worked in Syktyvkar.
Sawmilling, woodworking, and paper production are the city’s leading industries. The 1960’s saw the establishment of a major lumber complex, designed to produce paper and cardboard as well, and of a plant producing hydrolyzing yeast. The city has a sawmilling and woodworking combine and a furniture factory. The metalworking industry is represented by a machine shop and a plant for shipbuilding and ship repair. Construction materials are produced, and the city also has light and food-processing industries, as seen in the clothing factories, a leather footwear combine, meat-packing and flour-milling combines, and a milk plant.
Syktyvkar extends along the Vychegda and Sysola rivers. The layout follows a radial pattern, with streets fanning out from a central point near the water. Buildings from the Soviet period include the pedagogical institute (1938, architect I. A. Minin), the Komi Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1941, A. F. Zikeev), the buildings of the Ministry of Agriculture (1948, F. A. Tentiukova), the V. I. Lenin Republic Library (1958, F. A. Tentiukova), and the building of the oblast committee of the CPSU (1960, I. N. Kuskov and I. V. Parkhachev). Parks and small public gardens have also been built during the Soviet period. New housing has been added to the Ezhva residential district since 1960. There are monuments to V. I. Lenin (granite, 1967, L. E. Kerbel’), M. S. Babushkin (1941, N. Ia. Sarkisov), and to those who died for the Revolution (concrete, 1962, architect A. V. Kotrunov).
Syktyvkar’s educational and cultural institutions include the Komi Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the University of Syktyvkar, a pedagogical institute, and a branch of the Leningrad Academy of Timber Technology. There are also technicums for the pulp and paper industry, Soviet trade, and cooperatives, as well as a medical school, two pedagogical colleges, a music school, and a cultural-educational school. The city also has music and drama theaters, an art museum, and a museum of local lore.
REFERENCESKuratov, P. A. Syktyvkar: Putevoditel’po gorody. Syktyvkar, 1969.
Putintsev, V. V. Syktyvkar: Puteshestvie v proshloe, nastoiashchee i budushchee. Syktyvkar, 1971.
Shishkin, N. I. Syktyvkar (Ekonomiko-geograficheskii ocherk). Syktyvkar, 1958.