However, this Italian priest who "waged a decades-long war on behalf of integralist Catholicism and in defense of the church faithful to Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors
," is rather scathingly characterized as an anti-Semite and Fascist whose integralist views "will always remain a temptation for certain Catholics with a straightforward and oversimplified view of papal and church authority" and for "those insecure souls who look to the Church as a refuge in a world of constantly accelerating change." Regardless of the accuracy of these assertions, the negativity that abounds in this chapter is not to be found in Bokenkotter's discussion of the progressive historical figures he views more favorably.
Interestingly the same pope who issued the Syllabus of Errors
granted the convert scientist George Mivart a pontifical doctorate for his moderate version of evolutionism.
Gradually, as the church dictates even who does the dishes after the Eucharist, it is downloading more and more fundamentalism -- enough to raise the "Syllabus of Errors
" to the size of an "Encyclopedia of Errors." In the process, the slippage of the faithful will get so bad that the priest shortage will become moot.
Although most aspects of modernity, including democracy, separation of church and state, religious freedom, socialism, and the truths of science, had been condemned by the 1864 Syllabus of Errors
, Vatican II not only accepted democracy as a system of government but also the separation of church and state, with its guarantee of religious freedom for all.
The democratic movements of the 19th century encouraged rule by the people, due process, and freedom of speech, the press and assembly, and liberated the church from temporal entanglements in the Papal States, but these movements also provoked an extreme reaction from the ruling pope, Pius IX, in the form of the "Syllabus of Errors
" and insistence on the dogma of papal infallibility,
These 70 schemas, more than twice the volume of texts issued from all previous councils put together, renewed the anathemas of Trent and Vatican I, as well as the wholesale denunciation of the contemporary world already found in Pius IX's "Syllabus of Errors
In this critique, two points loom especially large: the "Syllabus of Errors
" of 1864, and the declaration of papal infallibility in 1870.
Both, however, urged support of the workers as the proper Catholic response to Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors
, which in their judgment had rightly condemned capitalism's destruction of the protection workers had enjoyed under the medieval guild system.
It is a quite different thing-to paint him as a man of prayer to the end, deeply devoted to Mary and favoring the infallibility declaration for the, same reason he published the incredibly arrogant Syllabus of Errors
: simply to help preserve the church from error.
In the English colonies, for example, the evangelizers--presumably Catholic--had to contend with the challenge of the "Calvinists," from which resulted "martyrs beyond numbering." Later on, as we come to the 19th century, we are told that Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors
and the First Vatican Council helped the churches of America "to "reaffirms their love for the pope and their sense of being part of a common church." Pius XI, Pius XII, Paul VI and "the renewing thought of John Paul II" were all duly credited with giving "new dynamisms to the tasks of evangelization." without so much as a mention either of John XXIII or of the Second Vatican Council.
Pius IX's certitudes as proclaimed in the "Syllabus of Errors
" have not stood the test of time.