hydrolysis or indirectly as symporters
and antiporters (Morth et al.
These include plasma membrane ion channels and transporters, including non-electrogenic symporters
In addition, the excretion of free amino acids by proton symporters
generates the proton-motive force necessary for ATP synthesis.
Since both sodium ions and glucose are transported in the same direction across the membrane they are also called symporters
dependent unidirectional symporters
such as Net (Slc6a2), Dat (Slc6a3), and Sert (Slc6a4), while uptake2 transporters show lower affinity.
Both thyroid peroxidase and sodium iodide symporters
from numerous species are inhibited by the same chemicals resulting in readily predictable reductions in circulating TH, though downstream effects may be species specific.
Once an excess of symporters
was implanted in the membrane of the cancer cells, they administered a radioactive form of iodine (either iodine-123 or iodine-131).
Since thyroid cancer cells have a lower expression of sodium-iodine symporters
, and therefore have a decreased ability to concentrate iodine compared with normal thyroid tissue,4 better diagnostic accuracy is obtained from the radioiodine scan when the patient is administered thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
Their breakthrough research, featured as the cover story in a recent issue of Molecular Cell, describes the precise molecular and biochemical structure of drug targets known as neurotransmitter-sodium symporters
(NSSs), and how cells use them to enable neural signaling in the brain.