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The science of symptoms.
In common usage, the symptoms of disease taken together as a whole.



(also called semeiotics), the study of the symptoms of diseases. Symptomatology may be general or specific.

General symptomatology studies the relationship of a given disease to the patient’s general characteristics— sex, age, nationality, occupation, heredity, previous illnesses, and constitution. It also studies such indications of his condition as posture, facial expression, fever, and changes in consciousness. The patient’s general characteristics play an important role in diagnosis. For example, hemophilia rarely affects women, measles is predominantly a disease of childhood, sickle cell anemia is widespread in Equatorial Africa but is not found among the indigenous peoples of America and Australia, there exists a special group of occupational diseases, and parkinsonism (Parkinson’s disease) may be diagnosed by observing a patient’s appearance and gait. General symptomatology also investigates changes in the function and morphology of organs as well as differing results of laboratory tests; examples are the diagnostic significance of enlargement of the liver or characteristics of the urine and feces in jaundice.

Specific symptomatology studies the diagnostic significance and initial manifestations of the symptoms of individual diseases. It also studies causes of a possible absence of symptoms, as well as combinations of symptoms. Symptomatology is an important component of diagnostics.


Hegglin, R. Differentsial’naia diagnostika vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow, 1965. (Translated from German.)
Lazovskii, I. R. Klinicheskie simptomy i sindromy. Riga, 1971.
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The present study contributes to the scarce literature examining the prevalence of depressive symptomatology among children in Latin America, as well as its association with exposure to neighborhood violence.
Media images are a powerful source of body image concerns, eating disorder symptomatology and risky body change behaviors in women, and increasingly, in men (Duggan & McCreary, 2004; Karazsia & Crowther, 2010; Morrison, Kalin, & Morrison, 2004).
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The dependent variable in the model was an ordinal measure of severity of depressive symptomatology with the three aforementioned levels.
On the basis of the reviewed research, we expected the neuropsychological function variables of cognitive flexibility and memory and the negative symptomatology to be defined as statistically significant predictors, allowing us to explain a large percentage of the variance in self-certainty (David et al., 2012, Orfei et al., 2010, Pedrelli et.
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In the following report, we describe an interesting ORS case with comorbid depressive symptomatology. This patient was thought worthy of presentation for a number of reasons such as his atypical older age of onset of ORS, and his interesting treatment history which included numerous visits to clinicians from different disciplines and polysurgery.
The 16-ltem Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), clinician rating (QIDS-C), and self-report (QIDS-SR): a psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression.