Following this model, the synoecism described by Strabo may refer not only to the reorganization of the city of Pleuron, but also to the political reorganization of surrounding smaller villages around a more defensible urban center that had previously existed as a separate entity.
Given the lack of any significant archaeological or epigraphic evidence, it is difficult to reconstruct the exact circumstances surrounding the synoecism of New Pleuron.
Sometimes Strabo's context suggests that the synoecism was accompanied by a building program, often including new defenses and city walls.
Here, the synoecism is contrasted with the foundation ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) of the three original cities.
All may accompany a political synoecism, categories 1 and 4 (see below), or an influx of settlers as in category 2.
For parallels where older cities still remained populated after a physical synoecism, see Hornblower 1982, pp.
Given this evidence, we might surmise that the synoecism
in the Isthmus involved an active and ongoing centralization of power and nucleation of population, processes linked to the extreme economic and political influence of the Hierapytnan capital on the surrounding countryside.