synonymous substitution


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synonymous substitution

[si·′nän·ə·məs ‚səb·stə′tü·shən]
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Genomic DNA was isolated and sequencing analysis of IFN-a gene revealed two missense substitutions (A83G: Lys28Arg, A127G: Thr43Ala) and one synonymous substitution (A144G).
Extensive variation in synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of seed plants.
Urrutia and Hurst [7] reported that, in humans, the codon usage bias is positively related to gene expression but is inversely related to the rate of synonymous substitution. Several factors contribute to synonymous codon usage bias such as gene expression level, protein hydropathy, protein secondary structure, and translational selection [8-11].
Haplotype A included three minor variants that differed by one (Al, A2) or two (A2, A3) synonymous substitutions. Haplotype B included variants that differed from each other by one synonymous substitution (B1, B2) and differed from a third (B3) by one non-synonymous substitution.
The LRT method utilizes the log likelihood ratio of the conserved relative to neutral model to measure the deleteriousness of an nsSNP, with the null model that each codon is evolving neutrally with no difference in the rate of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution and the alternative model that the codon has evolved under negative selection with a free parameter for the nonsynonymous to synonymous ratio [19].
(1994) suggested that the rate of synonymous substitution is about 10 times higher in louse sequences than in gopher sequences.
The first was a synonymous substitution mutation of T to G at nucleotide position 123, which did not replace valine with any other amino acid.
However, the observation that synonymous substitution rates show a generation time effect argues that a germline effect does not provide a sufficient correction.
The first was a synonymous substitution mutation of T to C at nucleotide position 221, which does not result in the alteration of coded amino acid residue, histidine.
In the process of molecular evolution and reconstruction of phylogenetic tree, a reasonable assessment of sequences non-synonymous substitution rate (Ka) and synonymous substitution rate (Ks) is crucial.
In comparing the nucleotide sequences in various species (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, pig, chicken, dog, cat), the synonymous substitution (Ks) ranged from 0.363 to 1.330, whereas the non-synonymous substitution (Ka) ranged from 0.407 to 1.553 in horse (Table 1).