Synonyms


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

Synonyms

 

words that are the same part of speech and that have meanings containing identical elements; the differing elements of the meanings are consistently neutralized in certain contexts. Thus, synonyms are words that are distinguishable only by such semantic features as become unessential in certain contexts; this permits the mutual substitution of the words in such contexts. Examples of synonyms in Russian are put’, “path,” and doroga, “road”; brosaf, “to throw,” and kidat’, “to fling”; grustit’, “to pine,” and pechalit’sia, “to be sorrowful”; smelyi, “brave”, and khrabryi, “courageous”; and zharkii, “hot,” and znoinyi, “torrid.”

Inasmuch as the number of coinciding semantic elements in various sequences of words varies (just as the number of positions in which the differing elements become unessential also varies), we can speak of varying degrees of synonymy for different words. Some synonyms are maximally close in meaning, for example, nastat’ and nastupat’, “to come,” “to arrive,” and speshit’ and toropit’sia, “to hurry”; they are called absolute synonyms. Other synonyms may be distinguished primarily by “stylistic tone” or their sphere of use, for example, vialyi, “sluggish,” and apatichnyi, “apathetic”; guby, “lips,” and usta, “mouth,” “lips” (poetic); and est’, kushat’, “eat,” and zhrat’, “gobble.” Such synonyms are often words with meanings containing an element of evaluation, for example, konchit’, “complete,” and zavershit’, “complete (something important)”; and kliacha, “nag,” and plokhaia loshad’, “horse in poor condition.” In some cases, the differing elements in the meanings of synonyms may be the elements of primary importance, for example, U tebia ne glaza, a ochi, “You have not eyes, but orbs.”

The concept of synonymy is also understood in a wider sense, in which synonyms are words that fall into a single “thematic group”; for example, butylka, “bottle,” fliazhka, “flask” (diminutive), and puzyrek, “vial”; pen’, “stump,” and koriaga, “snag”; and prisnit’sia, “to appear in a dream,” and prigrezit’sia, “to appear in a reverie.” The concept of synonymy applies not only to lexical items; morphological means, syntactic constructions, and phraseological combinations may also be synonymous.

REFERENCES

Ocherkipo sinonimike sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Shmelev, D. N. Problemy semanticheskogo analiza leksiki. Moscow, 1973.
Apresian, Iu. D. Leksicheskaia semantika: Sinonimicheskie sredstva iazyka. Moscow, 1974.
Gekker, S. F. “Bibliografiia po sinonimike russkogo iazyka.” In Sinonimy russkogo iazyka i ikh osobennosti. Leningrad, 1972.
Aleksandrova, Z. E. Slovar’ sinonimov russkogo iazyka, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1971.
Slovar’ sinonimov russkogo iazyka, vols. 1–2. Leningrad, 1970–71.

D. N. SHMELEV

References in periodicals archive ?
The aim of this paper is not to criticize official TA but to contribute to this dynamic discourse on terminology and argue that relatively minor changes in TA and/or anatomy textbooks, consisting of the introduction of a number of additional synonyms, could significantly improve the current nomenclature.
14: rectifications certifications--antonyms: change your behaviour or get 'certified' (sent away); synonyms: officially certifying a correction, or the changes required to obtain certification
Many biological terms have synonyms and it is possible to have a document that contains synonyms of the two terms entered in the search query or that contains one term and the synonym of the other term during the searching process.
Historical Accumulation Curves of Valid Names and Synonyms. We extracted the year of description of all valid species and subspecies names, as well as the year of description of the names that are currently considered synonyms and grouped years into decades.
The HYNLIH employs multiple cover manipulation plug-ins, it reduces the embedding rate on one cover manipulation tool, that is to say, many synonyms are not used when embedding.
Weipert divides his edition into two parts: an introductory part that deals with texts about dahiya in general and with the four edited collections of synonyms in particular, introduces matters of content, and briefly explains the edition, and a second part comprising the edited texts, each of which is followed by a detailed commentary.
In contrast, another synonym, "chief executive," is derived from the word "execute," which means "to carry out, or put into effect." Thus, instead of the president being an executive who carries out the law of the land, he is a commander who exercises authority and control.
The newly revised and updated second edition of Body Idioms And More: For Learners Of English by Mary Pare is an informative guide through the many intricacies involved in explanation of the phrases, terms, idioms, synonyms, and expressions expressed through the use of body parts, functions, and mannerisms.
If you are struggling to compete your favourite crossworld or and find an alternative word this brand new pocket size Siko oxford Electronic Thesaurus, Crossword Solver and Spellchecker will provide the soluation every time It user 565,000 Spelling and synonyms licensed Oxford Unversity Press publisher of the world's most trusted dictionaries.
This popular software product effectively reduces the amount of time spent on identifying a chemical by one of its many common names, its synonyms, or CAS number.
Verses 7-9 discuss God's torah with the use of six synonyms: law, decree, commandment, ordinances, fear of the Lord, and precepts.
It uses over 365,000 spellings and synonyms licensed from Oxford University Press, publishers of the world's most trusted dictionaries.