Synthetic Liquid Fuel

Synthetic Liquid Fuel

 

combustible liquids produced synthetically and used in internal combustion engines. Synthetic liquid fuels are prepared from a mixture of CO and H2 obtained from natural gas and coal; the process is carried out at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of such catalysts as Ni, Co, and Fe (Fischer-Tropsch process). Depending on the conditions of the process, the synthetic fuel will contain different amounts of paraffins and olefins, mostly of normal structure.

Synthetic fuels were first obtained in significant quantities in Germany during World War II to compensate for a shortage of petroleum. The synthesis was carried out at a temperature of 170°-200°C and a pressure of 0.1–1 meganewton per sq m (1–10 atmospheres) with a cobalt-based catalyst. The process yielded gasoline (kogasin I) with an octane number of 40–55, high-quality diesel fuel (kogasin II) with a cetane number of 80–100, and solid paraffin. It was found that the addition of 0.8 milliliter of tetraethyllead per liter of gasoline increased the octane number from 55 to 74. A synthesis with an iron-based catalyst was carried out at a temperature of 220°C and higher and a pressure of 1–3 meganewtons per sq m (10–30 atmospheres). The gasoline obtained under these conditions contained 60–70 percent olefins with normal and branched structures; the octane number was 75–78.

The production of synthetic liquid fuel from CO and H2 has not undergone subsequent development because of the high cost of the process and the low efficiency of the catalysts. High-octane antiknock additives, however, are produced synthetically. These additives include isooctane, obtained by the catalytic alkylation of isobutane with butylènes, and polymer gasoline, a product of the catalytic polymerization of propane-propylene fractions.

REFERENCES

Rapoport, I. B. Iskusstvennoezhidkoe toplivo, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1955.
Petrov, A. D. Khimiia motornykh topliv. Moscow, 1953.
Lebedev, N. N. Khimiia i tekhnologiia osnovnogo organicheskogo i nef-tekhimicheskogo sinteza. Moscow, 1971.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Ministries of Energy and Finance were instructed to determine the conditions for financing foreign loans for 2.3 billion USD under the project Organizing production of synthetic liquid fuel (GTL) based on purified methane of Shurtan Gas Chemical Complex, to attract a 300 million USD loan from Gazprombank (Russia) on the project Expansion of production capacities of Shurtan Gas Chemical Complex.
The plant will process 3.6 billion cubic meters of gas and produce 1.5 million tons of synthetic liquid fuel of the Euro-5 standard, including 311,000 tons of jet fuel, 743,000 tons of diesel fuel, 431,000 tons of naphtha and 53,000 tons of liquefied gas.
The next step for the company: turn that C[O.sub.2] into synthetic liquid fuel.
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Installations are being built today for the production of GTL [Ed.: gas to liquid, synthetic liquid fuel derived from natural gas].
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He wants to use an existing process to turn that coal into a synthetic liquid fuel, or synfuel.
The test, conducted under a Department of Energy program, showed that a synthetic liquid fuel, which can be dispensed from standard gas pumps, was capable of providing a fuel cell with a source of hydrogen that is free of catalyst poisons such as sulfur, metals, and aromatics.
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They too believed synthetic liquid fuel production might eliminate possible energy shortages.
Diversification of gas chemical industry will give impetus to the development of its priority areas, in particular, growth in production of synthetic liquid fuel, rubber and fiber, polymer products, construction materials, and other chemical products.
In 1986, President Ronald Reagan signed a law that abolished the United States' Synthetic Liquid Fuels Program.