Synthetic Oil

(redirected from Synthetic petroleum)

synthetic oil

[sin′thed·ik ′ȯil]
(materials)

Synthetic Oil

 

any of the synthetically produced liquids used mainly as lubricants, coolants, or hydraulic fluids. Synthetic oils are often used in the preparation of greases. These oils include synthetic hydrocarbons, esters (in particular, esters of phosphoric acid), polysilicones, carbon halides, and poly-alkylene glycols.

Synthetic hydrocarbons are obtained by the polymerization of olefins (ethylene, propylene) or the alkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, xylene). Their uses are similar to those of petroleum oils.

Esters are obtained mainly by the reaction of monobasic and dibasic acids with monohydroxy and polyhydroxy alcohols. Complex esters of the dioctyl sebacate type and pentaerythritol esters of monobasic acids are the most often used. They have good viscosity characteristics, low volatility, and better thermal and chemical stability than petroleum oils. Esters are used in aircraft engines as transmission lubricants and hydraulic fluids. Polyphenyl esters and esters of α-dihydroperfluoroalcohols are especially stable at high temperatures (up to 300°–400°C) and high levels of radiation. Esters of phosphoric acid are used as incombustible hydraulic fluids. All esters have good antiwear properties.

Polysilicones are a variety of organosilicon polymer and are distinguished by low volatility and a sufficiently high thermal stability. They are superior in viscosity characteristics to all other synthetic oils but are less effective as lubricants. Phenyl polysiloxanes are the most thermally stable of this group and withstand heating above 250°C. Methyl polysiloxanes do not congeal at temperatures of - 100°C and lower. Polysilicones are used for lubricating low-load friction points in mechanisms and instruments operating over a broad range of temperatures. Their high compressibility makes them suitable for use in shock absorbers, brakes and damping devices.

Carbon halides are hydrocarbons in which hydrogen atoms have been replaced by either fluorine or fluorine and chlorine. They are distinguished by an especially high resistance to O2, HNO3, H2 O2, and other chemically reactive compounds. These oils have poor viscosity characteristics and high volatility. Perfluoroalkyl polyesters (stabilized polymers of the oxide of perfluoropropylene) have the most valuable characteristics of this group. Carbon halides are used in nuclear and rocket technology and in the chemical industry when processes involve high temperatures or contact with corrosive media.

Polyalkylene glycols are products of the reaction of ethylene oxide or propylene oxide (or a mixture of the two) with water, alcohol, and ethylene glycol. They have good viscosity characteristics and do not leave deposits on machine parts after decomposition from heating. These oils are used as high-temperature lubricants and coolants in, for example, the paper, ceramic, and glass industries. Because of their scarcity, rather high cost, and specialized properties, the demand for synthetic oils is only a fraction of that for petroleum oils. However, with the advance of technology and the complex lubricating conditions of certain processes, the use of synthetic oils is increasing.

REFERENCES

Sinteticheskie smazochnye materialy i zhidkosti. Edited by R. C. Gunder-son and A. W. Hart. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965. (Translated from English.)
Tekhnologiia organicheskikh veshchestv, 1967. Moscow, 1968.
Lebedev, N. N. Khimiia i tekhnologiia osnovnogo organicheskogo i neftekhimieheskogo sinteza. Moscow, 1971.

V. V. PANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
CANADA The Athabasca tar sands underneath the boreal forests of Alberta are the second largest proven petroleum reserves outside Saudi Arabia, As the phrase "tar sands" implies, the oil is really bitumen, a viscous cocktail of hydrocarbons that requires upgrading into synthetic petroleum even before it can be refined.
oil reserves dwindle, some say the nation will have to rely on synthetic petroleum fuel made from its large stores of coal.
Syngas can also be used to create synthetic petroleum, which could be exported or used in Alaska.
The Bureau of Mines operated a semi-commercial, 200-400 barrel/day, synthetic petroleum plant from 1949 to 1953 before dismantling because of high production costs.
Although Germany's waxy crude could not be used for airplane fuel, it was particularly suitable for lubricating oils, for which synthetic petroleum was in general unsuited.
Furthermore, although the crude oil industry produced at least 90 percent of Germany's lubricating needs throughout the Nazi period, high-quality airplane lubricants came from the small quantities of lubricating oil produced by the synthetic petroleum industry.
Farben, the major synthetic petroleum producer, in turn stood under the Petroleum Group.
If the expansion of the German crude oil industry was impressive, the growth of synthetic petroleum was awesome.
The coal, or other carbon-based material, was combined with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst to form synthetic petroleum products.
Properties of Grade A and Grade B Synthetic Petroleum Resins
Hydro-photosynthetic and thermo-chemical transfer processes can help capture carbon dioxide gas emitted by industries to convert into usable synthetic petroleum that has high calorific value, notes the analyst of this research service.
Sundrop Fuels has developed a unique process that turns biomass into synthetic petroleum using solar energy, CO2 and water.

Full browser ?