oxytocin

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Related to Syntocinon: Misoprostol, Ergometrine, Terbutaline

oxytocin

(ŏksĭtō`sĭn), hormonehormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary glandpituitary gland,
small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain. It is sometimes called the master gland of the body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its secretions for stimulation (see endocrine system).
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 that facilitates uterine contractions and the milk-ejection reflex. The structure of oxytocin, a cyclic peptidepeptide,
organic compound composed of amino acids linked together chemically by peptide bonds. The peptide bond always involves a single covalent link between the α-carboxyl (oxygen-bearing carbon) of one amino acid and the amino nitrogen of a second amino acid.
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 consisting of nine amino acids, was determined in 1953 and in the same year it was synthesized in the laboratory. Both oxytocin and antidiuretic hormoneantidiuretic hormone
, polypeptide hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. Its principal action is to regulate the amount of water excreted by the kidneys. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), known also as vasopressin, causes the kidneys to resorb water directly from the
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 are biosynthesized in the hypothalamus of the brain and travel down neuronal axons to the posterior pituitary, where they accumulate prior to release. Stimuli that elicit the release of oxytocin include childbirth, suckling, and coitus; the uterine contractions that result may facilitate either childbirth or the ascent of spermatozoa through the fallopian tubes. Oxytocin may also play a role in the initiation of labor. The milk-ejection response occurs only in females immediately after childbirth. The role of oxytocin in males is unknown.

Oxytocin

 

(also pitocin), a hormone that is produced by the neurosecretory cells of the anterior nuclei of the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is transported over nerve fibers from the hypothalamus to the posterior lobe of the hypophysis, where it accumulates and is then released into the blood. It elicits contractions of the smooth muscles of the uterus and, to a lesser degree, the muscles of the urinary bladder and intestine. It also stimulates the flow of milk from the mammary glands. Oxytocin is secreted in response to stimulation of the nipple during lactation and distention of the uterus in the late stages of pregnancy. Adrenaline suppresses the secretion of oxytocin, and progesterone counteracts oxytocin’s effect on the uterine muscles.

Oxytocin is an octapeptide Whose four amino-acid groups are bound in a ring by cystine, which is also linked to a tripeptide:

Oxytocin—which is structurally similar to the other hypophyseal hormone, vasopressin—was isolated in pure form from biological substances (1950) and produced synthetically (1954) by V. du Vigneaud and co-workers; this was the first synthesis of a biologically active protein. A less expensive, synthetic oxytocin is used in medicine.

V. M. SAMSONOVA

oxytocin

[¦äk·sē¦tō·sən]
(biochemistry)
C43H66O12N12S2 A polypeptide hormone secreted by the neurohypophysis that stimulates contraction of the uterine muscles.
References in periodicals archive ?
2 units of syntocinon [4,5] was added with 100 ml of NS solution and infusion was maintained as 30-40 drops per minute, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min parameter of ECG, saturation, blood pressure, blood pressure, uterine tonicity and newborn APGAR score were recorded, after delivery of baby 10 units syntocinon was given I.M and 10 units with remaining RL infusion, haematocrit value was measured preoperative and immediately after skin closure.
ECSSIT--Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial.
Mrs Okuonghae, who worked at Prince Charles Hospital between 2005 and 2006, admitted in a Nursing and Midwifery Council hearing this week attempting to give 10 times the correct amount of labour-inducing drug syntocinon to her patients.
Ms Okuonghae, who worked at Prince Charles Hospital in Merthyr Tydfil between 2005 and 2006, admitted in a Nursing and Midwifery Council hearing to attempting to give 10 times the correct amount of labour-inducing drug syntocinon to her patients.
Trust bossed accepted the use of Syntocinon, a drug used in obstetrics when labour is prolonged, should not have been administered when the baby showed "clear signs of feotal distress".
She said: "The use of the drug Syntocinon is common in obstetrics when labour is prolonged, but in this case, when there were clear signs of feotal distress, it was a catastrophic decision and one which contravened the guidelines of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Lorraine enjoyed a trouble-free pregnancy and at 38 weeks was induced using the drugs prostaglandin and syntocinon in the hospital's delivery suite.
Lara and her partner had specifically requested that no Syntocinon was administered until the umbilical cord had stopped pulsating.
Cuando las contracciones son debiles y la dilatacion escasa o nula, o ante la constatacion de estres fetal, suele usarse una potente droga llamada Pitocin, o Syntocinon, cuyo fin es el de provocar o acelerar el parto estimulando contracciones continuas que llevan a una dilatacion mas rapida.
It is alleged she instructed a midwife to increase the dosage of a drug called Syntocinon, used to induce labour, from 18mls per hour, eventually up to 96mls, despite a disagreement with the midwife.
Midwife Elizabeth Cluett and multidisciplinary colleagues in Southampton, UK, have published the results of a randomised control trial showing that water immersion to address slow labour in nulliparous women reduced the need for syntocinon augmentation and for epidural analgesia.