Syringomyelia


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Related to Syringomyelia: syringobulbia

syringomyelia

[sə‚riŋ·gō‚mī′ē·lē·ə]
(medicine)
A chronic disease characterized by the presence of cavities surrounded by gliosis near the canal of the spinal cord and often extending to the medulla.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Syringomyelia

 

in humans, a chronic, progressive disease of the nervous system characterized by the formation of cavities in the spinal cord, by the proliferation of neuroglia, and by sensitivity, motor, and trophic disorders. The disease was first described by the French physician Olivier d’Angers in 1824.

The occurrence of syringomyelia is related to the improper embryonic development of the central canal and the posterior median cervical septum of the spinal cord, which is possibly influenced by heredity. Environmental factors, including trauma, infections, and intoxications, may also cause the disease. Usually striking at a young age, syringomyelia is initially characterized by intense pain in the cervicobrachial area and the arm, by numbness in various parts of the body, and by decreased sensitivity to pain and temperature (possibly resulting in burns). Gradually the muscles begin to atrophy, with the hands affected first, becoming clawhands. The skin becomes dry and cyanotic, and the bones become brittle. Other elements of the disease are curvature of the spine, pathological fractures, and trophic diseases of the joints. The spread of the disease to the brain stem results in syringobulbia, which is characterized by paresis of the soft palate, speech and swallowing disturbances, and atrophy of the tongue muscles.

The diagnosis of syringomyelia is facilitated by anomalies in an individual’s physical development, including asymmetry of the face and lid splits and spina bifida occulta. The disease is treated with repeated roentgenotherapy, doses of Neostigmine (or galanthamine), and ultrasound, which provides temporary relief in the early stages of the disease. In some cases, syringomyelia is treated surgically.

REFERENCE

Shamburov, D. A. Siringomieliia. Moscow, 1961.

V. B. GEL’FAND

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Syringomyelia is present in 30 to 70% of CM-I patients.[1-3] The progression of syringomyelia associated with CM-I is due to the action of the cerebellar tonsils, which partially occlude the subarachnoid space at the foramen magnum and act as a piston on the partially enclosed spinal subarachnoid space.[15] Syringomyelia can be also associated with specific clinical signs and symptoms.
The asymmetric sensory-motor involvement, pyramidal signs, and lumbosacral skin lesion were thought to be caused by the multiradicular effects of syringomyelia involving the dorsal root ganglion at the lumbosacral level.
(1,2,7,8) The most archetypal clinical example of this is syringomyelia. Afluid filled cavity (or syrinx) forms in the subarachnoid space of the cervical or upper thoracic spinal cord due to an interference in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid.
Charcot hip joint refers to a destructive hip arthropathy caused by tabes dorsalis, syringomyelia, peripheral nerve injury due to diabetes mellitus, congenital insensivity to pain with anhydrosis, and so on.
Mehltretter et al., "Review article: Chiari type I malformation with or without syringomyelia: prevalence and genetics," Journal of Genetic Counseling, vol.
The eight-year-old suffers from Chiari Malformation and Syringomyelia, leaving her with slurred speech, in near-constant pain and unable to play with her friends.
Since then, the condition has been further complicated by the fact she also sufferers from syringomyelia - a fluid-filled cyst in her spinal cord - which she compares to being "a human spirit level".
Additionally, a patient with cavitation can develop a condition known as syringomyelia which results in additional neurological and functional damage to the patient.
Insensitivity to pain may have different underlying causes such as syringomyelia, diabetes mellitus, leprosy and interstitial hypertrophic neuritis [1].
The second stage is the necrotic material clearance stage, and this stage is from 4 days to 2 weeks after injury, characterized by edema, microglial activation and proliferation, necrotic cell clearance, syringomyelia formation, and apoptosis.
Cabrera, "Isolated Horner syndrome and syringomyelia in a child," Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, vol.