After the measures adopted by the King of Hungary in the year 1366 and several successive evolutions (Unio Trium Nationum, the system of official religions, the Leopoldine Diploma, etc.), the Romanians were completely ousted, both as an ethnicity and by way of the religion they embraced, from the political life of the Hungarian and, later, the Austrian and the Austro-Hungarian State, only the Hungarians, the Szeklers
and the Saxons enjoying all the privileges and rights entailed by their presence in the local and central institutions of the state.
In the case of Szeklers
, the census has more complex problems because in the collected data there aren't people who claim themselves Szeklers
, if not in a minimal number.
Table 2: Respondents' perception of the boundaries of the primarily national group of identification Categories Higher educated Lower educated Transylvanian Hungarian CN:5 TG:5 SG:4 CN:5 TM:3 SG:5, MC:1 Hungarian from Romania O:3 O:1 Hungarians CN:1 MC:1 Hungarian living in Romania SG:1 CN:1, SG:1 Szeklers
CN:1 SG:2 MC:3 SG:2, MC:3 Hungarian with Romanian O:1 citizenship Other (local identities) CN:1 SG:1 Note: The abbreviations are location indicators as follows: CN: Cluj-Napoca, TM: Targu-Mures, SG: Sfantu Gheorghe (Covasna), MC: Miercurea Ciuc (Harghita), O: Oradea (Bihor), B: Band (Mures).
Both the "official regional language" and the "multinational state" are preliminary instruments serving the larger project of an "ethnic autonomy" of Hungarians (Szeklers
) in the counties of Harghita and Covasna (a region locally named "Szekely Land"), transparently assumed by UDMR.
Harghita County lies in a depression surrounded by the Eastern Carpathians, being split in the middle by the Gurghiu Mountains and Harghita, the sacred mountain of the Szeklers
, which is also the youngest member of the volcanic mountain range of the Eastern Carpathians.
Thus, the Germans (Saxons) became Lutheran, (most of) the Hungarians converted to Calvinism, the Szeklers
remained largely Catholic and the Romanians themselves remained, with few exceptions, Orthodox.
"President PCM, Jeno Szasz said on Wednesday in a press conference that <<Szeklers do not threaten Romania, but Szeklers
are challenged in a very rude>> while deputy party Csaba Farkas said that there is an <<ethnical>> tension Szeklers
A good example for this are the problems and controversies on the question of how to learn Romanian language in the region, as mother tongue or as foreign language--of Szeklers
(Harghita, Covasna), where the pupils have the biggest Romanian language deficit.
During this same year the claim was made by Hungarian politicians that the three Szeklers
' counties, where a little less than half the Hungarians in Romania live and where they enjoyed an overwhelming majority, should be turned into a special status region in the model of South Tyrol.