T'ang


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T'ang

(täng), dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907. It was founded by Li Yuan and his son Li Shih-min, with the aid of Turkish allies. The early strength of the T'ang was built directly upon the excellent system of communications and administration established by the Sui. At first the neighboring peoples, nomadic and civilized, were held in check, and by the mid-7th cent. the T'ang occupied or controlled large portions of Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, and Turkistan. During the T'ang China was open to foreign ideas and developed trade with neighboring countries and Central Asia. While the introduction of foreign music and dances enriched the T'ang culture, the Chinese Confucian culture and administrative system had profound influence in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Sculpture flourished (T'ang horses are especially noted) and the painting (of which few examples have survived) is considered superior. In literature poetry was the most highly developed form; Li Po (701–62), Tu Fu (712–70), and Po Chu-I (772–846) were the most distinguished poets. The classics of Confucianism were closely studied and provided the basis for the civil-service examinations that were to assume great importance later (see Chinese examination systemChinese examination system,
civil service recruitment method and educational system employed from the Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 220) until it was abolished by the Ch'ing dowager empress Tz'u Hsi in 1905 under pressure from leading Chinese intellectuals.
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). Although religious toleration was usually practiced, foreign cults were sometimes proscribed; Buddhism was suppressed in the Hu-chiang period, and many Buddhist monasteries were dissolved, at great profit to the state treasury. The high-water mark of territorial expansion and political unity was reached during the reign of Emperor Hsuan Tsung (712–56). Defeat by the Arabs at the Talas River in W Turkistan (751) checked T'ang ambitions in the west, and the costly struggle against the An Lu-shan rebellion (755–63) finally exhausted the empire. Warlord governors turned many provinces into autonomous personal domains. The vigor of the early T'ang administration quickly declined, and control over border regions was lost, especially to the Uigurs, who became dominant in Mongolia. In the 9th cent. local maladministration became widespread, and revolts broke out in the south and in Tibet. After the T'ang collapse there was great disorder until the establishment of the Sung dynasty in 960.

Bibliography

See E. G. Pulleyblank, The Background of the Rebellion of An Lu-shan (1955); E. O. Reischauer, Ennin's Travels in T'ang China (1955); A. F. Wright and P. C. Twitchett, ed., Perspectives on the T'ang (1973); D. Twitchett, The Cambridge History of China (Vol. 3, 1979); H. J. Wechsler, Offerings of Jade and Silk: Ritual and Symbol in the Legitimation of the T'ang Dynasty (1985); C. Hartman, Han Yu and the T'ang Search for Unity (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
(16.) Notably The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of T'ang Exotics (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ.
The Great Age of Chinese Poetry: The High T'ang. New Haven: Yale UP, 1981.
Chaisuwan shows the continuity of this contact and network in later centuries by highlighting the Thung Tuk site, which has yielded a Ganesa image, shards of Changsa ware (late T'ang), Persian ware, etc.
It is a little discouraging to realize at this point that, although the key items of evidence she uses in this chapter are Tang rather than Han in date, Tseng does not draw on scholarship in English on Tang dynasty understandings of celestial realms that might have really helped her, most notably Edward Schafer, Pacing the Void, T'ang Approaches to the Stars (Berkeley, 1977).
1992 The writing of official history under the T'ang. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer sity Press.
If you want to try authentic, traditional Cantonese in an elegant setting, look no further than the Michelin starred T'ang Court restaurant, at the Langham hotel.
Singapore also has a spanking new conservatory, a world-class string q net (the T'ang), an annual international piano festival and a local piano and violin competition.
He is the author of the award-winning Inspector Chen series of mystery novels, two books of poetry translations, Treasury of Chinese Love Poems (2003) and Evoking T'ang (2007), and a poetry collection, Lines Around China (2003).
We were soon proceeding through an archway bearing the Chinese characters T'ien-chu t'ang, "Catholic Church" (literally, "The Hall of the Lord of Heaven," this being the translation of Deus that the Jesuits considered the most appropriate after experimenting with various other options).
/ It will not be part of the weather." But the two forward-looking poems, which will look very much like the most current Wright, are "Chinoiserie" and, though it may seem surprising to say so, "Firstborn." The former reveals Wright's ongoing attempt to emulate the great poets of the T'ang Dynasty, Li Po and Tu Fu, among others.
In 641 the 33rd Tibetan Emperor Btsan-po khri srong-btsan requested Wen-ch'eng Kung-chu as a bride from the Emperor T'ai-tsung of the T'ang dynasty of China.