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Turkey (Türkiye), the Turkish Republic (Türkiye Çumhuriyeti)
Turkey is a state in the western part of Asia and extreme southeastern part of Europe. Approximately 97 percent of its territory (Anatolia) is on the peninsula of Asia Minor; approximately 3 percent (Eastern Thrace) is in Europe, in the southeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Turkey is bordered on the northeast by the USSR, on the east by Iran, on the southeast by Iraq and Syria, and on the northwest by Bulgaria and Greece. There are 2,600 km of land frontiers. The Black Sea bounds the country on the north, the Aegean Sea on the west, and the Mediterranean Sea on the south. Several islands in the Aegean, including Imbros and Bozca Ada, belong to Turkey. The Bosporus, the Dardanelles, and the Sea of Marmara separate the European and Asian parts of Turkey. Area, 780,600 sq km. Population, 40.2 million (1975 census). The capital is Ankara.
Administratively, Turkey is divided into 67 Il, or vilayets (Table 1), which in turn are subdivided into lice, or districts.
Turkey is a republic. The present constitution went into effect on July 9, 1961, subsequently incorporating a number of amendments and supplements. The head of state is the president, elected from among the members of the legislature by the Grand National Assembly for a term of seven years. The president publishes the laws passed by the legislature, represents Turkey in international affairs, and serves as commander in chief. The country’s highest legislative organ is the bicameral Grand National Assembly. The upper chamber, the Senate, consists of 150 members elected by the people for terms of six years and 15 members appointed by the president; in addition, the former presidents of Turkey and members of the National Unity Committee hold seats for life. One-third of the Senate stands for election every two years. The National Assembly is composed of 450 members, elected by the people for terms of four years. All citizens over 21 are entitled to vote unless they are attending military schools, are members of the armed forces not above the rank of sergeant, or have been deprived of their rights in accordance with judicial procedures. The cabinet is the highest organ of the executive branch. It is formed by the prime minister, who follows the instructions of the president, and is composed mainly of members of the legislature.
Authority in the vilayets is exercised by the valis, or governors, who represent the central government; in addition, there are elective provincial councils, whose executive organs are called permanent commissions. Municipal councils are elected in cities and large populated areas; a council of elders and a headman (the muhtar, who is simultaneously the representative of the vilayet) are elected in villages. All elective bodies serve for four years.
The judicial system comprises administrative courts, courts of the first instance, courts of appeals, and commercial courts. The Court of Cassation, located in Ankara, is the court of last resort for reviewing decisions of other courts. The Constitutional Court has specialized functions.
Turkey is a mountainous country lying within the Asia Minor Highlands and partly within the Armenian Highland. The northern
|Table 1. Administrative divisions of Turkey|
|Vilayet||Area (sq km)||Population (1975)||Capital|
|Adana. . . . . . . . . .||17,300||1,234,700||Adana|
|Adiyaman. . . . . . . . . .||7,600||345,800||Adiyaman|
|Atyonkarahisar. . . . . . . . . .||14,200||576,900||Afyonkarahisar|
|Ağri. . . . . . . . . .||11,400||337,600||Karaköse|
|Amasya. . . . . . . . . .||5,500||318,100||Amasya|
|Ankara. . . . . . . . . .||30,700||2,572,600||Ankara|
|Antalya. . . . . . . . . .||20,600||669,900||Antalya|
|Artvin. . . . . . . . . .||7,400||227,100||Artvin|
|Aydm. . . . . . . . . .||8,000||607,100||Aydm|
|Balikesir. . . . . . . . . .||14,200||788,600||Balikesir|
|Bilecik. . . . . . . . . .||4,300||136,000||Bilecik|
|Bingól. . . . . . . . . .||8,100||209,100||Bingöl|
|Bitlis. . . . . . . . . .||6,700||218,000||Bitlis|
|Bolu. . . . . . . . . .||11,100||427,300||Bolu|
|Burdur. . . . . . . . . .||6,900||222,400||Burdur|
|Bursa. . . . . . . . . .||11,100||960,000||Bursa|
|Çanakkale. . . . . . . . . .||8,200||367,100||Çanakkale|
|Çankin. . . . . . . . . .||8,500||266,500||Çankin|
|Çorum. . . . . . . . . .||12,800||550,400||Çorum|
|Denizli. . . . . . . . . .||11,900||556,200||Denizli|
|Diyarbakir. . . . . . . . . .||15,400||649,800||Diyabakir|
|Edirne. . . . . . . . . .||6,300||337,900||Edirne|
|Elâziğ. . . . . . . . . .||9,200||417,800||Elâziğ|
|Erzincan. . . . . . . . . .||11,900||284,700||Erzincan|
|Erzurum. . . . . . . . . .||25,100||749,200||Erzurum|
|Eskişehir. . . . . . . . . .||13,700||492,900||Eskişehir|
|Gaziantep. . . . . . . . . .||1,600||715,500||Gaziantep|
|Giresun. . . . . . . . . .||6,900||462,400||Giresun|
|Gümüşane. . . . . . . . . .||10,200||286,900||Gümücane|
|Hakkâri. . . . . . . . . .||9,500||126,200||Çölemerik|
|Hatay. . . . . . . . . .||5,400||744,300||Antakya|
|icel. . . . . . . . . .||15,900||710,700||Mersin|
|isparta. . . . . . . . . .||8,900||322,100||Isparta|
|Istanbul. . . . . . . . . .||5,600||3,864,500||Istanbul|
|Izmir. . . . . . . . . .||12,000||1,660,500||Izmir|
|Kars. . . . . . . . . .||18,600||701,800||Kars|
|Kastamonu. . . . . . . . . .||13,100||436,900||Kastamonu|
|Kayseri. . . . . . . . . .||16,900||674,000||Kayseri|
|Kirklarell. . . . . . . . . .||6,600||268,200||Kirklareli|
|Kirşehir. . . . . . . . . .||6,600||232,000||Kirçehir|
|Kocaell. . . . . . . . . .||4,000||478,500||Izmit|
|Konya. . . . . . . . . .||47,400||1,423,900||Konya|
|Kütahya. . . . . . . . . .||11,900||480,400||Kütahya|
|Malatya. . . . . . . . . .||12,300||577,300||Malatya|
|Manisa. . . . . . . . . .||13,800||870,800||Manisa|
|Maraş. . . . . . . . . .||14,300||620,200||Maraş|
|Mardin. . . . . . . . . .||12,800||529,300||Mardin|
|Mugla. . . . . . . . . .||13,300||401,400||Mugla|
|Muş. . . . . . . . . .||8,200||252,100||Muş|
|Nevşehir. . . . . . . . . .||5,500||249,000||Nevşehir|
|Niğde. . . . . . . . . .||14,300||460,900||Niğde|
|Ordu. . . . . . . . . .||6,000||661,700||Ordu|
|Rize. . . . . . . . . .||3,900||335,000||Rlze|
|Sakarya. . . . . . . . . .||4,500||495,800||Adapazan|
|Samsun. . . . . . . . . .||9,600||904,800||Samsun|
|Siirt. . . . . . . . . .||11,000||389,300||Siirt|
|Sinop. . . . . . . . . .||5,900||266,600||Sinop|
|Sivas. . . . . . . . . .||28,400||739,100||Sivas|
|Tekirdağ. . . . . . . . . .||6,200||318,700||Tekirdağ|
|Tokat. . . . . . . . . .||10,000||592,600||Tokat|
|Trabzon. . . . . . . . . .||4,700||716,200||Trabzon|
|Tunceli. . . . . . . . . .||7,800||163,300||Tunceli|
|Urfa. . . . . . . . . .||18,600||598,200||Urfa|
|Uşak. . . . . . . . . .||5,300||228,700||Uşak|
|Van. . . . . . . . . .||19,100||386,100||Van|
|Yozgat. . . . . . . . . .||14,100||498,000||Yozgat|
|Zonguldak. . . . . . . . . .||8,600||829,200||Zonguldak|
and southern coasts have few indentations, but the western coast abounds in them. The maximum distance from west to east is 1,600 km, and from north to south, 500–600 km; the length of the coastline exceeds 7,000 km.
Terrain. Mountains and plateaus predominate, with the principal topographical features resulting for the most part from recent tectonic activity. In the north, the Asia Minor Highlands and part of the Armenian Highland are bordered by the Pontic Mountains (maximum elevation: 3,937 m, Kaçkar Dag), which comprise the Western Pontic, Eastern Pontic, and Canik mountains. To the south, the highlands are bordered by the Taurus Mountains (maximum elevation: 3,726 m, Mount Demirkazik), consisting of the Western Taurus, the Taurus proper, and the Anti-Taurus. To the east are the parallel ranges of the Northern Taurus (Tahtah Dinboga), Inner Taurus (Egriburun), and Eastern Taurus. In the eastern part of the country, the Taurus Mountains give way to the Kurdistan Mountains (Mount Dzhilo, 4,168 m).
The country’s interior is occupied by the Anatolian Plateau, with its occasional ridges and extinct volcanoes (Erciyes Dagi, 3,916 m) and numerous basins with interior drainage containing salt marshes and lakes. The western part of the Asia Minor Highlands consists of parallel, elongate mountain ranges (elevations, 2,000–2,500 m) and intermontane valleys. The Armenian Highland is characterized by plateaus of lava and tuff whose surfaces are broken by closed lakes and volcanic cones and domes (Mount Ararat, 5,165 m, the highest peak in Turkey; Siiphan Dagi, 4,434 m). The plateaus alternate with tectonic depressions that are separated by ridges formed through folding and block faulting. The northern extremity of the Jazira Plateau (elevations, 500–1,000 m) approaches the Eastern Taurus Mountains from the south.
Low mountains of the tstranca massif and rolling plains predominate in European Turkey. Part of the coastal region forms lowlands, with the largest lowland areas in Eastern Thrace being Çukurova and the Lower Thracian Lowland.
Geological structure and minerals. Turkey is located within the Mediterranean Géosynclinal Belt. The Pontic and Taurus mountains in, respectively, the northern and southern part of the country are the result of Alpine folding. These structures contain sedimentary and volcanogenic sedimentary rocks of the Mesozoic and Paleogene underlain by a complex of magmatic ultrabasic and basic rocks; in places, there are granitic intrusions in the sedimentary rocks.
Overthrust nappes are pronounced and widespread in the Taurus Mountains. The Central Anatolian Intermediate Fold Zone, situated between the nappes, comprises median masses (Mizia Galatia, Menderes, Kirçehir), composed of crystalline Precam-brian rock and some Paleozoic rock, and the Izmir-Ankara Géosynclinal Trough. The foredeep of the ancient African-Arabian platform, filled by Cenozoic molasse, extends through southeastern Turkey. The country typically has a high level of seismic activity.
The mineral resources of Turkey include chromites (Taurus and Western Pontic mountains, Izmir-Ankara Trough), borates (Western Pontic Mountains), bauxites (Taurus and Pontic mountains), tungsten, mercury, and antimony (Menderes, Kirsehir, Western Pontic Mountains), copper (Pontic Mountains, Taurus), and coal (Pontic Mountains). There are also commercially worked deposits of oil (in the southeastern foredeep), manganese, iron, lead, zinc, asphaltite, lignite, magnesite, barite, corundum, asbestos, fluorite, sulfur, phosphates, and rock salt. Reserves of tungstic oxide total 60,000 tons; in addition, there are 10 million tons of chromites, 27,000 tons of mercury, and 110,000 tons of antimony.
Climate. The climate of Turkey is subtropical, with great contrasts in temperature and moisture depending on elevation and distance from the sea. In the southern and western coastal regions, the climate is Mediterranean, with dry summers; in the northeast, the climate is uniformly moist; and in the country’s interior, it is continental. In the lowlands, the average January temperature ranges from 5°C in the north to 10°C in the south; on the plateaus of the interior, January temperatures range from 0° to – 5°C in the west and from 0° to – 15°C in the east. In the mountains of the east, temperatures reach –35°C. The average July temperature for the coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara is 22°C–24°C, and for the Aegean and Mediterranean coastal regions it ranges from 25° to 32°C. On the Jazira Plateau, July temperatures exceed 30°C (40° on some days), and on the plateaus of the interior the temperature ranges from 15° to 22°C.
The mountains along the country’s periphery, in contrast to the mountain ranges and plateaus of the interior, receive abundant moisture. The greatest amount of precipitation falls on the slopes of the Pontic and Taurus mountains facing, respectively, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. Precipitation here totals 1,000–2,000 mm a year, reaching 3,000 mm a year in the Eastern Pontic Mountains, the wettest area of Turkey. In the interior regions of the Anatolian Plateau, annual precipitation is 200–350 mm, and in the mountains of the Armenian Highland, it is 300–600 mm, a considerable portion in the form of snow. Precipitation comes mainly in winter in the coastal mountains of Turkey, while spring precipitation predominates on the Anatolian Plateau and in the Armenian Highland. There is year-round precipitation in the Eastern Pontic Mountains. Over most of Turkey, evaporation exceeds precipitation, and agricultural fields in nearly all parts of the country require irrigation.
Riversandlakes. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers belong to the drainage basin of the Persian Gulf. The Kura and Araks (Aras) drain into the Caspian Sea, and the Yesjl, Kizil, and Coruh empty into the Black Sea. Some of these rivers flow through Turkish territory only in their upper courses. The Sakarya River, also flowing into the Black Sea, rises in the Anatolian Plateau. The lower course of the Marica River, emptying into the Aegean Sea, is in European Turkey.
The rivers of western Turkey usually have low discharge. In summer, the water level falls and the rivers sometimes dry up; freshets occur in spring and winter. In the rivers of eastern Turkey, high water often occurs in spring and summer, largely as a result of the melting of mountain snow. River waters are widely used for irrigation. Turkey has numerous lakes (with a combined area of more than 9,000 sq km), filling depressions chiefly on the Anatolian Plateau and in the Armenian Highland; the largest are the closed salt lakes Van and Tuz.
Soils. Soil-formation processes of the semidesert and steppe type predominate throughout the greater part of Turkey. The plateaus of the interior have mainly gray and gray-brown semi-desert soils and chestnut soils typical of dry steppes; solonchaks are common along the bottoms of depressions. Sierozem soils characterize the Jazira Plateau, and reddish brown soils, the coastal regions. The terra rossa and brown mountain-forest soils in the moist subtropical regions of the northeast give way to mountain-meadow soils at elevations of 2,000–2,100 m. Areas of chernozem soils are found in the dry steppes of the Armenian Highland.
Flora. The vegetation of semiarid subtropical regions predominates in the coastal mountains, while that of subtropical semi-deserts predominates on the plateaus. Mediterranean vegetation (sclerophyll forests, shrubs) is found low on the mountain slopes facing the seacoasts; higher up in the Taurus Mountains, there are coniferous forests in places, and on the upper slopes of the Eastern Pontic Mountains there are deciduous forests with evergreen underbrush and coniferous forests. The vegetation of the interior slopes of the peripheral mountains and of the plateaus comprises mainly xerophytic formations of subshrubs occurring with herbs, ephemerals, and spinous pulvinate shrubs, helio-tropic deciduous shrubs and low-growing trees, and dry steppes and semideserts. The Armenian Highland has mountain forests and mountain steppes, which give way at higher elevations to subalpine and Alpine meadows. Semideserts of grass and wormwood dominate the Jazira Plateau. Approximately one-third of the country’s territory is used in agriculture, mainly for grain crops.
Fauna. The wildlife of Turkey includes such typical representatives of mountain fauna as mountain sheep and bezoar goats. The forests are home to the red deer, roe deer, and wild boar; predators include the wolf, golden jackal, striped hyena, and bear. The wild ass and the gazelle, a representative of African fauna, inhabit the Jazira Plateau. There are numerous birds, among them sparrows, larks, swallows, and nightingales. The white stork nests in the central regions of Anatolia; birds of prey include eagles, vultures, falcons, and hawks. Periodic, large-scale increases in the locust population are observed in the southeast. The coastal waters abound in tuna, mullet, Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic bonito, and flounder.
Preserves. As of 1974, there were 12 national parks. The best known are Ulu Dag, a mountain massif in western Turkey whose terrain is the product of earlier glaciation; Karatepe, located in the southern spurs of the Taurus and having forests of red oak and red pine; and the Munzur River valley, located in eastern Turkey.
National regions. The coastal semiarid subtropical regions have denuded sclerophyll forests and shrubs and are predominantly mountainous. Lazistan, the wettest region, is in northeastern Turkey and has luxuriant broad-leaved forests and a moist, subtropical coastal strip. The Anatolian Plateau is covered mainly by dry steppes and semideserts and has an abundance of salt marshes and salt lakes. The Armenian Highland is a region where mountains and volcanic massifs alternate with wide inter-montane basins, frequently filled by lakes; mountain steppes predominate. The Jazira Plateau, the hottest part of Turkey, is a dry subtropical region dominated by semideserts.
REFERENCESZhukovskii, P. M. Zemledel’cheskaia Turtsiia (Aziatskaia chast’— Anatoliia). Moscow-Leningrad, 1933.
Matveev, S. N. Turtsiia (Aziatskaia chast’—Anatoliia). Moscow-Leningrad, 1946.
Zarubezhnaia Aziia: Fizicheskaia geografiia. Moscow, 1956.
Darkot, B. Geografiia Turtsii. Moscow, 1959. (Translated from Turkish.)
Turetskaia Respublika (Spravochnik). Moscow, 1975.
IU. K. EFREMOV (physical geography) and V. V. VESELOV (geological structure and minerals)
Turks constitute approximately 90 percent of the population, which according to the 1975 estimate exceeds 35 million. They include a subgroup, the Yürüks, who follow a seminomadic way of life in southeastern and western Anatolia. There are also Kurds, who inhabitant the region in eastern Turkey referred to as Turkish Kurdistan and number more than 3.5 million. Arabs, of which there are approximately 600,000, live in the southeast. The Circassian population, numbering 150,000, comprises a number of Caucasian peoples, including the Adygeians, Ubykhs, Chechens, Ossets, and Lezghians. Lazes, Georgians (120,000), Azerbaijan-is, and Turkmens live in the northeast. A small number of Bulgarians and Albanians live in European Turkey, and Istanbul is home to a considerable number of Armenians, Jews, and Greeks. Greeks also live along the coast and on the Aegean islands.
The official language is Turkish. Most of the population adheres to the Sunnite branch of Islam; there are Shiites and Yezi-dis among the Kurds. The Armenians, Georgians, Greeks, and most of the Bulgarians are Christians; the Jews profess Judaism. The Gregorian calendar is followed.
For the years 1961–75, the annual population increase averaged 2.5 percent. As of 1975, the economically active population was 15 million, or 37 percent of the total population. Of this number, 61 percent were engaged in agriculture, 16 percent in industry (including construction), 4 percent in transport, 5 percent in trade, 13 percent in the service sphere, and 1 percent in other sectors. Approximately 5 million persons, or one-third of the economically active population, were either unemployed or underemployed. As of 1974, approximately 1 million Turkish workers were employed in Western Europe.
The social composition of the population, by percentages, is as follows: peasant laborers, 63; wealthy peasants and landowners, 6; urban workers, 20; artisans and professional people, 5; entrepreneurs, 1; and others, 5. The upper 20 percent of the population receives 61 percent of the national income, while urban and rural workers, representing 60 percent of the population, receive only 21 percent.
The average population density is 52 persons per sq km (1975). The most densely populated regions are the Black Sea coast and western Anatolia, and central and especially eastern Anatolia are the most sparsely populated areas; 42 percent of the population is urban. The most important cities, with their populations as of 1975, are Istanbul (2,535,000), Ankara (1,699,000), Izmir (636,000), Adana (467,000), Bursa (346,000), Gaziantep (301,000), Eskisehir (290,000), and Konya (270,000).
REFERENCENarody Perednei Azii. Moscow, 1957.
Formation and expansion of the Turkish military-feudal state (14th to the mid-17th centuries). The Turkish state was formed in the 14th century on territory in Asia Minor that had belonged, either wholly or in part, to several ancient and medieval states. These states included the Hittite Empire, Lydia, Media, the Achaemenid Empire, the empire of Alexander the Great, the Se-leucid state, Pontus, Pergamum, Rome, Byzantium, and the Sultanate of Konya. By the 1320’s, a feudal principality had been formed in northwestern Asia Minor; it was called the Ottoman (Osman) Empire after Osman I, the founder of the ruling dynasty. The Turkish nationality that developed in this state from various Turkic tribes and elements of the indigenous population came to be called Ottoman Turks.
In the 1320’s and 1330’s the Turks conquered the remaining Anatolian possessions of Byzantium: Bursa (1326), which became the first capital of Turkey, Nicaea (iznik), and Nicomedia (izmit). From its inception the Ottoman Empire was a military-feudal state. The feudal warriors (spahsis) who made up the ruling class concentrated on the conquest and pillaging of new territories. The military-Le/w system of landholding (seeLEHN) that developed in the Ottoman Empire led to further Turkish conquests. Eastern Thrace, including Adrianople (Edirne), and several Bulgarian cities were conquered in the second half of the 14th century. In 1389 the victory of the Turks on Kosovo Polje transformed Serbia into a tributary. Turkish troops subjugated the Bulgarian Kingdom, Thessaly, and Macedonia. At the battle of Nicopolis in 1396, the Turks routed the united forces of the Crusaders and advanced to Constantinople. By the end of the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire had annexed, by peaceful means or military conquest, all the Anatolian principalities (bey-lics) as far as Canik (Samsun Vilayet) to the northeast, Silvas to the east, and Karaman to the southeast.
In the early 15th century a large army headed by Tamerlane invaded Anatolia. At the battle of Ankara in 1402, the sultan Baya-zid I (ruled 1389–1402) was defeated and taken prisoner, and most of Anatolia broke up into its former beylics.
In 1415 popular revolts against the feudal government broke out in western Anatolia and the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire was gradually restored after the revolts had been crushed and the internecine struggle of the sons of Bayazid I had ended. By the 1440’s the Ottoman Turks had resumed their expansion into the Balkans. The sultan Murad II (ruled 1421–51) routed in 1444 and 1448 the armies of the Crusaders who attempted to halt the Turkish advance; his son, Mehmed II (ruled 1451–81), took Constantinople on May 29,1453, after a siege lasting nearly two months. The Byzantine Empire ceased to exist, and Constantinople (Istanbul) became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
From the 1450’s to the 1470’s, the last vestiges of Serbian independence were eliminated, and Bosnia, the Morea (Peloponnesus), Attica, and the Trebizond Empire were conquered; in addition, Turkish suzerainty was established over the Crimean Khanate and Walachia. Toward the end of his reign, Mehmed II broke the resistance of Skanderbeg and seized all of Albania.
Territorial expansion entailed an increase in the number of conditional land grants known as timars and ziamets; in the holdings (hassi) of the sultans, members of their families, and high officials; and in the lands belonging to the Muslim clergy (seeWAQF). The Ottoman Empire reached its greatest extent in the 16th century under Selim I (ruled 1512–20) and Suleiman I the Magnificent (ruled 1520–66). In 1514 and 1515 the Turks conquered Armenia, Kurdistan, and northern Mesopotamia, up to and including the city of Mosul. In 1516 and 1517 the empire expanded to include Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Hejaz, and in 1519 part of Algeria was conquered. In the 16th century the powerful Ottoman Navy controlled almost all the Mediterranean. In 1521 Turkish troops conquered Belgrade. At the battle of Mo-hács in 1526 they inflicted a serious defeat on Hungarian and Bohemian troops and then seized a large part of the Kingdom of Hungary. In the mid-16th century Rhodes and other Aegean islands came under the control of the Ottoman Empire, along with Tripolitania and all of Algeria. At this time the Ottoman Empire comprised vast territories in Europe, Asia, and Africa, with total area of approximately 8 million sq km.
The peoples conquered by the Ottoman Turks were subjected to a heavy yoke that retarded their socioeconomic development. Even as the Ottoman Empire was at its zenith, however, the seeds of decline were being sown.
The virtually incessant wars led to the ruin of the peasantry and to economic chaos. The distribution of power in the ruling class changed significantly, and new feudal landowners gradually forced out the old Lehn-holders. The higher Muslim clergy, chiefly the ulama, grew stronger along with the feudal aristocracy. The immediate consequence of these developments was a reduction in the size of the feudal army and a decline in its military capability. The new landowners avoided military service, and discipline among the spahsis sharply declined. The military effectiveness of the paid troops, particularly the janissaries, also declined. In a departure from traditional rules, the janissaries acquired families and became a unique social stratum that used its privileges to engage in trade and crafts. The process of dissolution gradually spread through the entire feudal aristocracy. Social discontent increased, and major uprisings broke out in Anatolia in the late 16th and first half of the 17th century (seeJELALI).
The military weakness of the Ottoman Empire was first manifested in the defeat of the Turkish Navy at the battle of Lepanto in 1571. The Ottoman Empire had already suffered defeat in a war with Russia in 1569. Nonetheless, the borders of the empire were to remain essentially stable for more than 100 years to come. The empire even acquired Cyprus in 1571 and Tunisia in 1574 and waged numerous wars against Persia, Austria, Poland, and Venice (seeAUSTRO-TURKISH WARS and POLISH-TURKISH WARS).
Intensification of thecrisisof Ottoman military feudalism (mid-17th to late 18th centuries). The disastrous siege of Vienna offered graphic proof of the declining military and political might of the Ottoman Empire: in 1683 the Turkish army was resoundingly defeated by the troops of King Jan III Sobieski of Poland and allied forces from Austria and the German principalities. This defeat marked the beginning of the steady attrition of Turkey’s conquered territories. The Holy League, an anti-Turkish alliance created in 1684 and comprising Austria, Poland, Venice, and (from 1686) Russia, inflicted several more defeats on Turkish armies. The Karlowitz Congress of 1698–99 made official the large European territorial losses of the Ottoman Empire.
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74, which was begun by Turkey at the instigation of France, the rule of the Ottoman Empire in Europe was greatly weakened. Under the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji (1774), however, the Ottoman Empire retained its Balkan possessions, and Russia merely gained a shift in the Russo-Turkish border from the Dnieper to the Bug River. Nevertheless, the political articles of the treaty ended Turkey’s monopoly in the Black Sea and the Balkans. The treaty proclaimed the independence of the Crimean Khanate, which subsequently, in 1783, was annexed to Russia. The Black Sea and the straits were opened to Russian commercial shipping, and Moldavia and Walachia were placed under Russian protection.
Turkey also suffered a serious defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–91, which had been begun by Turkey. Under the terms of the Peace of Jassy (1791), the Russo-Turkish border was moved to the Dnestr, and Turkey reaffirmed Russian protection of Moldavia and Walachia and the other conditions of the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji. Beginning with the late 18th century, the fate of the Turkish possessions in Europe depended increasingly on the great powers. This period saw the emergence of the Eastern Question, the problem of dividing up the “Ottoman legacy.” During this period the “capitulations, ” which had been concluded by Turkey on an equal basis with the European states since the 16th century, became exploitative concessions guaranteeing special privileges to foreign states and their subjects; these privileges were included in the treaties between the Ottoman Empire and foreign states.
Turkey’s military defeats and the growing influence of the European powers reflected the profound crisis that the Ottoman Empire was undergoing. The crisis stemmed from the dissolution of the Lehn system, the growth of large-scale feudal landowner-ship and feudal exploitation, the ruin of the villages and towns, the decline of the army and navy, the weakening of central authority, and the growing separatism of local feudal lords.
Attempts at reform (late 18th century to the 1860’s). The threat of the complete disintegration and collapse of the Ottoman Empire engendered a search for ways to restore the empire’s former might and to create a centralized feudal-absolutist state. The first attempts at reform were undertaken during the reign of the sultan Selim III (ruled 1789–1807). His reforms, called the new order (Nizam-i cedid), embraced several goals, including the reorganization of the Lehn system of landholding; the formation of a new infantry, which was to be trained and disciplined in the European manner; and the expansion of the manufacturing industry to meet military needs.
These reforms immediately encountered resistance from the majority of the principal feudal lords, the ulama, and, above all, the janissaries, who sensed a direct threat to their privileges. The success of the new order was also impeded by conflicts with other states: Napoleon Bonaparte’s Egyptian Expedition of 1798–1801 drew Turkey into a war with France, which lasted from 1798 to 1801; in 1806 a war broke out between Turkey and Russia.
In May 1807 a mutiny of the janissaries in Istanbul put an end both to the new order and to the reign of Selim III. Mustafa Pasha Bayraktar attempted to revive the reforms, but a janissary revolt in 1808 also cut short his effort to halt the disintegration of the empire.
In 1826 the sultan Mahmud II (ruled 1808–39) destroyed the Janissary Corps by massacring virtually all its members. He then reorganized the army and instituted progressive measures in the areas of government administration and finance, law, and, to some extent, culture. The most important reform was the abolition of the Lehn system. The reforms of Mahmud II came too late, however, to prevent the further disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. In the early 19th century the Egyptian pasha Me-hemet Ali became, in essence, the independent ruler of Egypt. A virtually independent Serbia emerged in the Balkans in the course of the First Serbian Uprising of 1804–13, which was given impetus by the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–12. The Bucharest Peace Treaty (1812) moved Russia’s borders southwest to the Prut.
Although the diversion of Russian forces to the Napoleonic conflict permitted Mahmud II to restore his authority in Serbia in 1813, a new revolt of the Serbs flared up in 1815 (seeSECOND SERBIAN UPRISING). In 1821 the Greek War of Independence began. After Turkey’s defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, the Treaty of Adrianople (1829) required Turkey to grant autonomy to Greece and Serbia and to increase the rights of Moldavia and Walachia. In the 1830’s, when Mehemet Ali entered into armed conflict with the sultan (seeEGYPTIAN CRISES), intervention by the European powers ultimately led to Turkey’s being placed, in effect, under their joint guardianship. Turkey’s economic dependence on the European powers also increased, particularly after the conclusion in 1838 of Anglo-Turkish and Franco-Turkish trade agreements that permitted European manufactured goods unrestricted access to the domestic markets of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1839 the country’s growing dependence on the European powers drove the Turkish ruling class once again to initiate reforms (seeTANZIMAT). These reforms did away with the last remnants of the military-feudal system in government and administration, put the judicial system in order, and encouraged the formation of a Turkish intelligentsia. The most important part of the Tanzimat, however—the guarantees of life and property for all the sultan’s subjects—remained purely formal proclamations.
The Crimean War of 1853–56, in which Great Britain, France, and Sardinia were allied with Turkey against Russia, resulted in the Treaty of Paris (1856), which reaffirmed the “integrity and inviolability of the Ottoman Empire.” In actuality, this principle merely disguised the efforts of the Western European powers to increase their influence over the policies of the Turkish government. The reforms enacted during the second Tanzimat period, which began in 1856, served the interests of foreign capital and the comprador bourgeoisie (which remained non-Turkish until the 1920’s) associated with it. Foreigners were granted the right to own land and received a number of concessions to build railroads, to carry on mining operations, and to operate ports and municipal services and facilities. Foreign banks were established, including the Ottoman Imperial Bank, an Anglo-French institution that had the power to issue banknotes. At the same time, the reforms fostered the gradual growth of social forces opposed to the ruling class of feudal lords. From this opposition came the first major progressive figures in the development of modern Turkey: Namik Kemal, Ibrahim Sinasi, Ali Suavi, Ziya Paca, and other progressive writers, journalists, teachers, civil servants, and officers. In 1865 they founded a secret society called the Young Ottomans, which adopted as its goal the establishment of a constitutional government in Turkey.
The decline of Turkey into semicolonial dependence on the imperialist powers; the birth of the bourgeois revolutionary movement; the Young Turk revolution of 1908 and its consequences; the fall of the Ottoman Empire (1870’s to 1918). From the 1870’s, Turkey was declining into semicolonial dependence on the imperialist powers, but increasing tensions among these powers in the Balkans and the Middle East delayed the final division of Turkish possessions. New factors were added to those already operating to hasten the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and its total dependence on foreign capital: the empire was forced not only to enter the world capitalist market but to adopt a capitalist system of production. The Turkish economy, however, was developing unevenly. Foreign concessionary enterprises were expanding, and foreign banks were being opened. Foreigners invested capital in the extraction industry and in those branches of manufacturing industry that processed export crops. In terms of economic development, Turkey lagged behind all of Europe and most of Asia; the number of industrial and transport workers did not exceed 40,000–50,000.
On May 30, 1876, the sultan Abdul-Aziz (ruled 1861–76) was overthrown in a coup organized by Midhat Pasha and several other members of the government. Midhat Pasha, who was associated with the Young Ottomans, had feared that the great powers would use Turkey’s bankruptcy and the national liberation uprisings of the 1870’s in Hercegovina, Bosnia, and Bulgaria as pretexts for renewed interference in the Ottoman Empire. As a result of the coup, control of the country passed to Midhat Pasha and the Young Ottomans who had collaborated with him. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (ruled 1876–1909) approved the constitution drafted by Midhat Pasha and Namik Kemal, and on Dec. 23, 1876, the Midhat constitution was solemnly proclaimed. By the beginning of 1877, however, the sultan had dismissed Midhat Pasha from the post of grand vizier and subjected most of the Young Ottomans to repressive measures. In February 1878 he dissolved the Parliament, which had been elected in accordance with the constitution, and established an autocratic, despotic regime, the zuliim.
Turkey’s defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 virtually ended its domination in the Balkans; the Congress of Berlin of 1878 recognized the independence of most of the Balkan peoples. In 1881, France seized Tunisia. In 1882, Great Britain occupied Egypt, which became a protectorate in 1914. In 1881 foreign creditors forced the sultan to approve the establishment of the Ottoman Public Debt Administration to manage Turkey’s most important sources of income and to monitor the country’s finances. Foreign influence also extended to the army, gendarmerie, navy, customs office, and other government offices. Seeking to maintain control over his subject peoples, Abdul-Hamid II ruthlessly suppressed the slightest manifestations of free thought, inflamed national and religious enmities, and provoked clashes between Muslims and Christians. In the 1890’s, by order of Abdul-Hamid II, Armenians were slaughtered in Sasun and other districts of Asia Minor and in Istanbul; several hundred thousand Armenians perished during these pogroms.
The zulum, however, could not halt the development of progressive forces within the country. In the late 19th century the Young Turks emerged as the political successors to the Young Ottomans. Their first organization was the secret Committee of Union and Progress, which was established in 1889. The revolutionary situation in Turkey gathered momentum as a result of the intensified national liberation struggle of the Balkan peoples in the early 20th century and the consequent exacerbation of the Eastern Question. Another factor was the general revolutionary upsurge in the East influenced by the Russian Revolution of 1905–07, which inspired the “awakening of Asia.” Relying chiefly on officers in the armed forces, the Young Turks raised an armed rebellion in July 1908 that compelled Abdul-Hamid II to restore the Constitution of 1876 and reconvene the Parliament (seeYOUNG TURK REVOLUTION OF 1908). The policies of the Young Turks, however, were aimed at limiting the revolution and eased the way for internal and external reactionary forces to achieve their goals.
In April 1909 reactionary groups organized a counterrevolutionary coup in Istanbul to restore the sultan’s unlimited power. The attempt failed, Abdul-Hamid lost his throne, and the Parliament elected the weak-willed Mehmed V as sultan; but from that time on, the Young Turks became increasingly reactionary. After assuming ministerial, parliamentary, and administrative posts, they established a dictatorial regime that differed little from the zuliim. The partial reforms of the Young Turks did not alter the underlying class structure of the feudal-clerical Ottoman Empire. After the liberation struggle spread through the non-Turkish regions of the empire (including the Balkans, Arab lands, and Armenia) and the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12 and Balkan Wars of 1912–13 destroyed the illusion of Ottomanism, the Young Turks began propagating the reactionary ideas of Pan-Turkism and using the slogans of Pan-Islam.
The Young Turks did nothing to ease the situation of the Turkish working masses. The cadastre of 1913, which reinforced private ownership of land, worsened the landless status of the peasantry. Workers’ strikes were suppressed by the authorities, and democratic and socialist organizations that had appeared in Turkey after the Young Turk revolution were persecuted. As a result of the Italo-Turkish War, Turkey lost its last African possessions (Tripolitania and Cyrenaica), along with the Dodecanese Islands. After the Balkan Wars of 1912–13, Turkey’s European possessions were limited to eastern Thrace and Edirne.
At the beginning of 1914, power in Turkey became concentrated in the hands of Young Turk leaders headed by Enver Pasha, Talaat Pasha, and Jemal Pasha. Divorced alike from the people and from the main strata of the national bourgeoisie, this triumvirate drew Turkey into World War I on the side of Germany in 1914. The war ended in total defeat for Turkey. Within the country, the Young Turks initiated a reign of terror. In 1915, under the pretext of evacuating the area near the front, the Young Turk authorities exterminated more than 1 million Armenians. Dissatisfaction with the Young Turk regime increased in Turkey. Indignation at the arrogant behavior of the German imperialists intensified in the army. After the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, Turkey had an opportunity to withdraw from the war, but, contrary to the national interests, the Young Turk rulers continued the war against Soviet Russia for another year. Despite the signing of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty in 1918, the Young Turk rulers involved the country in the anti-Soviet intervention in the Caucasus. The advance of the Entente powers along the Palestinian and Macedonian fronts, which began in September 1918, forced the sultan’s government to surrender unconditionally on Oct. 30, 1918 (seeMOUDHROS ARMISTICE). With its defeat, the Ottoman Empire essentially came to an end. Enver Pasha and the other Young Turk leaders emigrated, and the Committee of Union and Progress was dissolved.
The national liberation revolution and creation of the Turkish Republic (1918–23). The imperialists of the Entente, not satisfied with taking from the Ottoman Empire its Arab lands, sought to destroy Turkey itself, which they regarded as an object of colonial exploitation and as a base for military intervention in Soviet Russia. After the signing of the Moudhros Armistice, the troops of Great Britain, France, Italy, and Greece occupied Anatolia. The Entente powers appointed high commissioners in Istanbul, reinstated the capitulations, which had been revoked at the beginning of the war, and assumed oversight of banks, factories, mines, railroads, and government institutions. These actions dealt a crushing blow to the economic interests of various strata of Turkish society. V. I. Lenin stated that “Turkey herself resisted plunder by the imperialist governments with such vigour that even the strongest of them have had to keep their hands off her” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 42, p. 354). The anti-imperialist camp, which united nearly all strata of Turkish society, was headed by the Anatolian, primarily commercial, bourgeoisie, which had grown markedly stronger during the war. Of enormous importance to the development of the Turkish national liberation movement were the ideas of the October Revolution and the successes of Soviet Russia in its struggle against the imperialist aggression of the same powers that now threatened Turkey.
Representatives of the patriotic intelligentsia, especially the military intelligentsia, emerged as the ideological leaders of the Anatolian bourgeoisie. The officers provided the leader of the Turkish nationalists, Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Atatiirk), and the entire movement came to be known as the Kemalist movement (seeKEMALIST REVOLUTION). The Kemalists’ first step was to organize the national forces that had formed the Associations for the Defense of Rights. The Representative Committee, which was created at the Sivas Congress of the Associations for the Defense of Rights in 1919, was essentially the first provisional government of the new Turkey. The Parliament convened in Istanbul in January 1920 at the demand of the Kemalists and adopted a declaration of Turkey’s independence (the National Pact). The imperialist powers of the Entente responded by occupying Istanbul. The Parliament was dissolved, and many social and political figures were arrested. The imperialist powers, led by Great Britain, expected to crush swiftly the Turkish national liberation movement. After forcing the sultan’s government to accept the Treaty of Sèvres (1920), which was intended to transform Turkey into a partitioned and dependent state, they proceeded to implement the treaty by force and organized an open campaign of armed intervention. The intervention was entrusted to Greece (seeTURKISH WAR OF INDEPENDENCE), which, under the Treaty of Sèvres, was to receive considerable Turkish territory.
The actions of the Entente powers forced the Kemalists to carry on a resolute struggle with the occupying forces. On Apr. 23, 1920, a new parliament, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, convened in Ankara, to which the Representative Committee had moved from Sivas in late 1919; the Assembly declared itself the nation’s sole lawful authority. In the Assembly’s first foreign policy initiative, its chairman, Kemal Atatiirk, proposed to the Soviet government that diplomatic relations be established between the two countries; in addition, he requested Soviet aid in Turkey’s struggle against imperialism. The Soviet government agreed to the proposal and on June 2, 1920, became the first to recognize the government of the struggling country; aid was provided in the form of money (more than 10 million rubles in gold), a large quantity of arms and ammunition, communications equipment, and other supplies. The Soviet aid was morally and politically significant; it showed the Turkish people that they were not alone in their struggle and that they commanded the sympathy of the world’s most progressive forces.
A treaty of friendship and brotherhood between the RSFSR and Turkey was signed in Moscow on Mar. 16,1921. The Treaty of Kars between Turkey and the Soviet republics of Transcaucasia was concluded on Oct. 13, 1921, and a treaty between Turkey and the Ukrainian SSR was signed on Jan. 2,1922, during M. V. Frunze’s official visit to Ankara. These agreements laid a firm foundation for Soviet-Turkish friendship, brought great benefits to both sides, and played an important role in the Turkish people’s victory over the imperialist interventionists.
The Turkish people displayed heroism and solidarity in their war of national liberation. After halting the advance of the Greek Army in 1921, Turkish troops counterattacked in August 1922 and soundly defeated the interventionists. All of Anatolia was liberated from foreign occupation. On Oct. 6, 1923, the Turkish National Army entered Istanbul. The Treaty of Sèvres was abrogated and replaced by the Lausanne Treaty (1923). Despite a few concessions to the imperialist powers, the Lausanne Treaty marked the international recognition of an independent Turkey.
The aims of the bourgeois national revolution were realized in the course of the Turkish liberation struggle. The Kemalists limited the revolution to the reforms needed by the Turkish bourgeoisie and landowners. The Turkish peasants, who had borne the full burden of the war, received neither land nor liberation from exploitation by landowners and moneylenders. For example, the üsür, a feudal tax in kind, was not abolished until 1925. The sociopolitical demands of the working class also remained unsatisfied. The Communist Party of Turkey, which had been founded in 1920, was persecuted and harassed.
The ruling circle of Kemalists, headed by Atatiirk, sought to reorganize the government, to bring Turkey into the sphere of European bourgeois civilization, and to ensure the country’s independent economic development. Upon the cessation of military actions, the National Assembly abolished the sultanate in a law passed on Nov. 1,1922, and Turkey was proclaimed a republic on Oct. 29,1923. Atatürk completed the construction of a new national bourgeois state on the ruins of the feudal-clerical Ottoman Empire by implementing various reforms and founding the Republican People’s Party (RPP) in 1923.
Turkey after 1923. On Mar. 3, 1924, the caliphate was abolished. From 1924 to 1934 reforms were carried out that affected governmental structure, law, culture, and daily life. A republican constitution was adopted. The Muslim church schools (madrasas) and religious courts, based on sharia law, were abolished, and the dervish orders and their monasteries (tekkes) were closed. The Gregorian calendar was introduced. A new civil code, based on a European model, was adopted in place of Muslim law; polygamy was thus abolished. New criminal and commercial codes were adopted. Church and state were separated. The Arabic alphabet was replaced by the Latin. Women were granted the vote, first in municipal and then in parliamentary elections.
The Kemalists also implemented certain progressive economic measures based on a policy of statism and directed at liberating the Turkish economy from domination by foreign capital. Almost all foreign concessions were either canceled or bought out. National banks were founded, and new railroads, port facilities, and industrial plants were built. Strongly supporting Turkey’s policy of statism, the USSR in 1932 extended long-term credit on extremely favorable conditions and provided technical assistance in the construction of textile plants in Kayseri and Nazilli. A treaty of friendship and neutrality between Turkey and the USSR was signed in December 1925.
Turkey’s industrial development did not lead, however, to the creation of national heavy industry, and the agrarian problem remained unsolved. This situation resulted in a limited domestic market and a slow growth of national industry. Encouraging agricultural development along capitalist lines, the Turkish ruling circles refused to carry out radical agrarian reforms. Financially and economically, Turkey remained dependent on imperialist states. The popular masses, including the working class, whose numbers had increased with the creation of new branches of industry and the expansion of old ones, were deprived of democratic rights and freedoms. The unvaryingly hard economic conditions of the toiling masses led to an increase in strikes by the workers and in antigovernment actions by the peasants. At the same time, the Kemalist reforms provoked bitter opposition from feudal-clerical and comprador elements, but by 1926 or 1927 open right-wing attacks on the government had been suppressed; progressive forces also suffered repression. The political and economic stabilization of the Turkish national bourgeoisie contributed to a gradual strengthening of conservative and reactionary tendencies in the domestic policies of the Turkish ruling circles.
Atatürk died in 1938, and Ismet inônu was elected to replace him as president of the republic and chairman of the RPP. Under inônu a number of Atatürk’s opponents assumed leading posts.
At the beginning of World War II Turkey sided with the Anglo-French bloc and concluded an alliance with Great Britain and France on Oct. 19, 1939. After the fall of France in 1940, however, Turkey sought to improve relations with Hitler; on June 18, 1941, although still an ally of Great Britain, Turkey concluded a treaty of friendship and nonaggression with Germany. After Germany’s invasion of the USSR, Turkey proclaimed itself neutral, but in fact provided Germany with various forms of aid. Turkey sold Germany chromium ore and other strategic materials and allowed German and Italian warships to pass through the straits. When the fascist powers began to suffer defeats, however, Turkey aligned itself again with Great Britain and sought improved relations with the USA. Turkey broke off diplomatic relations with Germany in August 1944 and declared war on Germany and Japan in February 1945.
Because of certain changes in Soviet-Turkish relations during World War II, the Soviet government on Mar. 19, 1945, denounced the Soviet-Turkish agreement of 1925; the Soviet side stated that the agreement did not fit the new situation and required serious improvement. Although Turkey did not participate in military actions, the ruling circles carried out a policy aimed at militarizing the country. The maintenance of an army of a million men and other direct and indirect military expenditures imposed a heavy burden on the working masses. Deep discontent spread and finally flared into open protest against the dictatorial regime established by the RPP.
In 1945 a schism occurred in the ruling party. Dissident members of the RPP, headed by M. C. Bayar and A. Menderes, forced the government to reject the one-party system and founded a new bourgeois-landowners’ opposition party, the Democratic Party (DP). In an attempt to retain power, the leaders of the RPP made concessions to the working people, such as a limited agrarian reform in 1945 and permission to organize trade unions in 1947, but Turkish domestic policy did not fundamentally change.
In 1950 the RPP was defeated in parliamentary elections, and the DP came to power. Bayar was elected president of the republic, and Menderes became prime minister. In the very first years of the Bayar-Menderes government, capital investment in the Turkish economy by foreign and private Turkish sources rose sharply, and the volume of industrial and agricultural output increased. Although this economic policy enriched the big bourgeoisie, it brought further ruin to the working classes and the middle strata of the population.
The political influence of US imperialism in Turkey was also on the rise, and Turkish foreign policy became strongly pro-American. In 1947 the Turkish government concluded a foreign aid agreement with the USA; in subsequent years more Turkish-US agreements were signed. Turkey received substantial credits and subsidies for arms purchases and military and other construction; in return, Turkey permitted the USA to establish military bases on Turkish territory and placed a large portion of the Turkish armed forces under US control. Turkey joined NATO in 1952 and the Baghdad Pact, later known as CENTO, in 1955.
The Bayar-Menderes government pursued a hostile policy toward the USSR in the United Nations and other international organizations. Efforts by the Soviet government to normalize relations between the USSR and Turkey failed to elicit a positive response from Turkey’s ruling circles. Turkey’s relations with other socialist countries suffered, as did relations with the Arab states, as a consequence of Turkey’s proimperialist stance during the Suez crisis in 1956, its hostile attitude towards the Iraqi Revolution of 1958, and other political developments. Turkey’s relations with Greece deteriorated as a result of the Cyprus problem (seeCYPRUS).
The DP government dealt harshly with members of democratic organizations and courted the Muslim clergy. By the late 1950’s, even the RPP was being subjected to repressive measures. Discontent with the Bayar-Menderes regime spread through the masses, the patriotic intelligentsia (especially the students), and officer corps and culminated in street demonstrations in April 1960. On May 27,1960, the army staged a coup, declaring a return to the principles of Atatürk. The DP government was overthrown and the party disbanded. All power passed to the National Unity Committee (NUC) under the chairmanship of General C. Gürsel; the committee had been formed by the leaders of the coup.
A new constitution was ratified in 1961. With certain restrictions it provided the right to form political parties and associations, the right of the working class to strike, and other bourgeois democratic freedoms. As a result, soon after parliamentary elections were held under the new constitution in October 1961 and the NUC was dissolved, political activity among various strata of the Turkish population increased, and the polarization of class forces intensified. On the one hand, the development of a capitalist economy strengthened the big bourgeoisie and the party that essentially represented its interests, the Justice Party (JP); founded in 1961, the JP was, in composition and politics, the successor to the DP. On the other hand, the development of left-wing trends and progressive organizations was considerably accelerated by the rapid increase in the size of of the Turkish working class, which numbered more than 3 million by 1970, and by the growth in its class consciousness. The Turkish Workers’ Party (TWP) was founded in 1961. Responding to the growing popularity of democratic and socialist ideas and seeking to win the sympathy of the middle strata, the RPP in 1965 adopted the slogan “Left of Center.”
Initially, no one party was able to gain a decisive majority in the National Assembly. The parliamentary elections of 1965 showed considerable gain in strength by the JP, which formed a one-party government under its leader, S. Demirel. An important result of the 1965 election was the TWP’s winning of 15 seats.
Certain shifts took place in Turkish foreign policy after the 1960 coup. Although essentially it remained aligned with the USA, NATO, and CENTO, the Turkish government became more flexible and less one-sided in its foreign policy than had been the case under the Bayar-Menderes government. Turkey gradually normalized and improved relations with the USSR and other socialist countries as well as with developing, particularly Arab, nations. The improvement in relations with the USSR was reflected in a major expansion of Soviet-Turkish economic relations.
An exchange of visits between officials from both countries was of great importance. In April 1972, during a visit to Turkey by N. V. Podgornyi, chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Declaration of Principles of Neighborly Relations Between the USSR and the Turkish Republic was adopted; it provided for the development of relations between the two nations in accordance with the traditions of peace, friendship, and neighborliness initiated by Lenin and Atatürk. In December 1975 a Soviet delegation headed by A. N. Kosygin, chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, made an important visit to Turkey, in the course of which both sides agreed to a program of cultural and scientific exchanges for 1976 to 1978.
From the late 1960’s to the mid-1970’s, the domestic political situation in Turkey became more turbulent: the struggle for power among the political parties intensified, and the democratic movement expanded, demanding socioeconomic reforms, the withdrawal of Turkey from NATO, and an independent foreign policy. The situation was further complicated by acts of terrorism by extremist left-wing groups. In March 1971 the army’s high command issued an ultimatum demanding the removal of the Demirel government from office as incompetent to deal with the “anarchy” in the country. The Demirel government resigned, and on March 25 a new government was formed, headed by N. Erim, leader of the RPP’s right wing. In contrast to 1960, on this occasion the army retained civilian rule. In Ankara, Istanbul, and other major centers, however, martial law was imposed, and mass arrests began. Repressive measures were directed not only against extremist groups but against all groups objectionable to the government, primarily democratic organizations. Many progressive organizations, including the TWP, were banned, and numerous political and public figures with progressive leanings were tried and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. The interference by the military in Turkey’s political life led to increased discord among bourgeois politicians and between them and the military. The National Assembly was virtually paralyzed.
The internal political crisis reached a climax in the spring of 1973 when Cevdet Sunay’s term as president, which had begun in 1966, came to an end. Fahri Korutürk was finally elected president after 14 ballots in April 1973. By the autumn of 1973, the situation had stabilized somewhat, so that regular parliamentary elections could be held. In these elections the RPP was the most successful. The party had weathered a crisis caused by splits in its ranks and the resignation of its senior leader, I. Inônii (died Dec. 25, 1973), in 1972. Under Bülent Eçevit, who was elected chairman of the RPP in May 1972, the new party leadership put forward a series of demands calculated to draw the support of the popular masses. These demands included agrarian reform, limitations on foreign capital, a strengthening of the state sector of the economy, the provision of certain rights to workers and youth, amnesty for political prisoners, and, in foreign policy, a strengthening of neighborly relations with the USSR.
The RPP failed to attain an absolute majority in the National Assembly, however, and in January 1974 a coalition government was formed by the RPP and the National Welfare Party, which had been founded in 1972. A move toward some democratization by the Eçevit government, such as the amnesty law of May 1974, led to the renewed activity of political parties, trade unions, and youth organizations. In June the Turkish Socialist Labor Party was founded. Disagreements in the National Assembly over fundamental questions of domestic and foreign policy led to the resignation of the Eçevit government in September 1974. Eçevit and Demirel, the leader of the JP, repeatedly failed to form a new government because of disagreements between the parties, chiefly over the holding of early elections. From November 1974 to March 1975 a nonpartisan caretaker government held office. On Mar. 31,1975, Demirel succeeded in forming a new coalition government comprising the JP, the National Welfare Party, the Republican Reliance Party (founded 1973), and the National Action Party (founded 1969).
In response to the coup on Cyprus in July 1974, Turkey landed troops on the island, a move that strengthened the separatist movement among the Turkish Cypriots. The Turkish invasion led to a serious deterioration of relations between Turkey and Greece and complicated Turkey’s relationship with some of its NATO partners, including the USA, which voted to cut off military aid to Turkey as of December 1974; the embargo on military shipments took effect in February 1975. In July 1975 the American government decided to partially resume arms shipments to Turkey.
Right-wing forces are attempting to exploit the country’s unstable political situation, the Cyprus crisis, and the growing economic difficulties, in order to frustrate the social democratization apparent in Turkey. Such attempts are meeting with increasing resistance, however, from workers, the progressive intelligentsia, and students. In the mid-1970’s Turkey experienced repeated strikes protesting, for example, inflation and the American presence in the country.
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Akdag, M. Tùrkiyenin iktisadî ve ictimaî tarihi, vols. 1–2. Ankara, 1959–71.
Cahen, C. Pre-Ottoman Turkey. London, 1968.
Vryonis, S. The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization From the 11th Through the 15th Century. Berkeley, 1971.
Inalcik, H. The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age, 1300–1600. London, 1973.
Hammer-Purgstall, J. von. Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches, 2nd ed., vols. 1–10. Pest, 1834–36.
Köprülü, M. F. Les Origines de l’Empire Ottoman. Paris, 1935.
Tanzimat. Istanbul, 1940.
Davison, R. H. Reform in the Ottoman Empire, 1856–1876. Princeton, 1963.
Berkes, N. The Development of Secularism in Turkey. Montreal, 1964.
Bayur, Y. H. Turk inktlâbi tarihi, vols. 1–2. Istanbul, 1940–52.
Karal, E. Z. Osmanh tarihi, vols. 5–8. Ankara, 1947–62.
Uzunçarsili, I. H. Osmanh tarihi, vols. 1–4. Ankara, 1947–59.
The Ottoman State and Its Place in World History. Leiden, 1974.
Kemal, Mustafa. Put’ novoi Turtsii, 1919–1927, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1929–34. (Translated from Turkish.)
Kemal, Mustafa. Izbr. rechi i vysluplenüa. Edited and with an introductory article by A. F. Miller. Moscow, 1966.
Miller, A. F. Ocherki noveishei istorii Turtsii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Noveishaia istoriia Turtsii. Moscow, 1968.
Turetskaia respublika. Moscow, 1975.
Shamsutdinov, A. M. Natsional’no-osvoboditel’naia bor’ba v Turtsii 1918–1923gg. Moscow, 1966. (Contains bibliography.)
Moiseev, P. P. Agrarnyistroisovremennoi Turtsii. Moscow, 1970.
Kornienko, R. P. Rabochee dvizhenie v Turtsii, 1918–1963. Moscow, 1965.
Vdovichenko, D. I. Bor’ba politicheskikh partii v Turtsii (1944–1965). Moscow, 1967.
Danilov, V. I. Srednie sloi v politicheskoi zhizni sovremennoi Turtsii. Moscow, 1968.
Potskhveriia, B. M. Vneshniaia politika Turtsii posle vtoroi mirovoi voiny. Moscow, 1976.
Aydemir, S. S. Inkilâp ve kadro. Ankara, 1968.
Heyd, U. Foundations of Turkish Nationalism. London, 1950.
Esmer, A. S. Siyasitarih (1919–1939). Ankara, 1953.
Tunçay, M. Türkiye’ de sol akimlar, 1908–1925. Ankara, 1967.
Ataöv, T. Amerika, NATO ve Türkiye. Ankara, 1969.
Harris, G. S. Troubled Alliance: Turkish-American Problems in Historical Perspective, 1945–1971. Washington, D.C., 1972.
Bibliographies and reference works
Sverchevskaia, A. K., and T. P. Cherman, comps. Bibliografiia Turtsii, fase. 1 (1713–1917). Moscow, 1961. Fase. 2 (1917–1958): Moscow, 1959.
Bostashvili, N. I. Bibliografiia Turtsii. Tbilisi, 1971.
Koray, E. Türkiye tarih yasinlan bibliografyasi, 1729–1955, 2nd ed. Istanbul, 1959.
Babinger, F. Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen und ihre Werke. Leipzig, 19.27. .
Daniçmend, I. H. Izahlt Osmanh tarihi kronolojisi, vols. 1–4. Istanbul, 1947–55.
Jâschke, G. Turk kurtulusu savasi kronolojisi. Ankara, 1970.
Kornrumpf, H. J. Osmanische bibliographie mit besonderer Berück-sichtigung der Türkei in Europa. Leiden-Cologne, 1973.
Based on A. F. MILLER’S article “Turkey” in the Soviet Historical Encyclopedia
Political parties. The bourgeois political parties in Turkey include the Republican People’s Party, the Justice Party, the National Welfare Party, the Democratic Party, the Republican Reliance Party, the National Action Party, and the Turkish Unity Party.
The Republican People’s Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi) was founded in 1923 and represents the interests of the urban middle strata and a portion of the national bourgeoisie.
The Justice Party (Adalet Partisi) was formed in 1961 and represents the big industrial and commercial bourgeoisie that has close ties with foreign capital and the big landowners.
The National Welfare Party (Millî Selâmet Partisi), sometimes referred to in Soviet and Western works as the National Salvation Party, was formed in 1972. It replaced the Party for National Order, which had been banned in 1971 for the extreme right-wing, clerical views of its leadership.
The Democratic Party (Demokratik Partisi) was established in 1970, when a group of right-wing members of the Justice Party split from the party.
The Republican Reliance Party (Cumhurietci Giiven Partisi) resulted from the merger of the National Reliance Party and the Republican party, both of which had been founded in the 1960’s by deputies and senators in the National Assembly who were dissatisfied with the Republican People’s Party and its “left of center” policy.
The National Action Party (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi) was created in 1969 from the Republican National Peasant Party, which had been founded in 1954. An extreme right-wing party, it adheres to a pan-Turkish and anticommunist line.
Legal left-wing parties in Turkey include the Turkish Socialist Labor Party (Türkiye Sosyalist Iççi Partisi), which was founded in 1974, and the Turkish Workers’ Party (Türkiye Iççi Partisi), which was founded in 1961. In 1968 the right wing, opposed to scientific socialism, left the Turkish Workers’ Party; the party was banned in 1971 but was reconstituted in 1975. The Communist Party of Turkey (Türkiye Komünist Partisi), which was founded in 1920, has been an underground party since 1923.
Trade unions and other public organizations. The Turkish Confederation of Trade Unions (Türk-Í§) was founded in 1952 and is a member of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. The Turkish Confederation of Revolutionary Trade Unions was founded in 1967.
The National Union of Turkish Students was founded in 1919, the Turkish National Youth Organization in 1947, and the Union of Turkish Women in 1930. The Society of Progressive Youth was founded in 1976, the Society of Progressive Women in 1975, and the Peace Society in 1977.
Overview of the economy. Turkey is an agroindustrial country where vestiges of feudalism survive, particularly in agriculture. In the international capitalist division of labor, Turkey plays the role of supplier of agricultural produce and raw materials, and the country is economically dependent on the imperialist monopolies of Western Europe and the United States. With help from the socialist countries, Turkey is today carrying on a struggle for economic independence. The state owns and operates all railroad transport and communications systems; in addition, it controls one-half of maritime shipping, three-quarters of the credit and banking system, approximately one-third of the country’s manufacturing industry, three-quarters of the mining industry, and virtually all electric power generation. With the present (1975) alignment of political forces, the state can take advantage of its access to large amounts of capital to consolidate its position in the economy vis-à-vis other classes and social groups.
State planning was introduced into the economy in the 1960’s. The first state plan for economic development covered the years 1963–67, and the second, 1968–72. Implementation of the country’s third plan began in 1973.
Turkey suffers from food shortages, underemployment, chronic budget deficits, an unfavorable balance of trade, a regular increase in its foreign debt, and accelerating inflation. In 1975, the per capita income was $600, one of the lowest in the capitalist world.
In 1975, agriculture accounted for 24.7 percent of the gross domestic product (67 percent in 1927); industry (not counting construction) accounted for 23.7 percent (10 percent in 1927); trade, 12.6 percent; transportation and communications, 8.1 percent; and other sectors, 30.9 percent. The concentration and centralization of production and capital accelerated in the 1960’s and 1970’s. Powerful entrepreneurs, such as V. Koç and D. Yasar, joined together to form business associations patterned after Western monopolies. These groupings have also sought to copy foreign monopolies in extracting excessive profits. The large aggregations of capital in Turkey have been formed in partnership with foreign monopoly capital.
Agriculture. Landowners and wealthy peasants, who make up only 10–12 percent of the rural population, own up to two-thirds of the cultivated land, while small- and medium-sized farms, representing approximately 65 percent of the rural population, occupy less than one-third of the land. Approximately 25 percent of the rural inhabitants own no land and must survive as tenant farmers or laborers. The agrarian reforms legislated in 1945, 1950, and 1973 dealt only with the transfer of vacant state-owned lands to needy peasants.
LAND CULTIVATION. Land cultivation, the chief agricultural sector, accounts for two-thirds of the value of total output. As of 1974, 25.5 million hectares (ha), or 33 percent of the country’s territory, were under cultivation.
Approximately 80 percent of the sown area is planted with grain crops, chiefly wheat and barley, which are grown mainly on the plateaus of central Anatolia. Less important crops are maize, grown chiefly in the Black Sea coastal region, rye, oats, and rice.
Industrial crops, comprising cotton, tobacco, sugar beets, sesame, flax, and hemp, play an important role and occupy 15 percent of the area under cultivation. Cotton and tobacco are grown in the coastal regions, and sugar beets in the interior. Turkey is one of the world’s leading producers and exporters of tobacco, and its Samsoun (Samsun) tobaccos are world renowned. The sown areas and yields of the principal crops are summarized in Table 2.
Orchards and vineyards occupy 3.3 million ha, or 4.2 percent of the total land area. Grapes, figs, olives, and citrus fruits (oranges, mandarins, lemons) are grown chiefly along the Black Sea coast, while pears, apples, quinces, plums, apricots, and peaches are grown throughout the country. Tea is raised in the eastern part of the Black Sea coastal region near Rize and Hopa; the harvest of tea leaves is approximately 200,000 tons per year. The filbert crop, which totaled 360,000 tons in 1974, accounts for more than two-thirds of world output and is of great importance to the economy. Filbert groves cover the northern slopes of the mountains in northern Anatolia. The harvest of English walnuts in 1974 was 170,000 tons.
As of 1975, 201,000 tractors were in use; approximately 45 percent of the country’s farmland was ploughed by tractor that year, compared with 13 percent in 1960. In addition, there were 10,000 combine harvesters in use. Mineral fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and seeds of selected strains are coming into wider use. Thus far, however, the introduction of advanced equipment and techniques has been limited to the country’s larger farms.
LIVESTOCK RAISING. Livestock raising is the second most important branch of agriculture. Approximately one-third of Turkey consists of meadows and pastureland, but these areas are not used efficiently. The livestock population in 1974 numbered 37 million sheep, 18 million goats (including approximately 4.5 million Angora goats), 12 million cattle (5 million dairy cows), 900,000 horses, and 1.6 million asses. Turkey is one of the world’s leading suppliers of angora. The fleece yield in 1973 was 54,000 tons, including 6,000 tons of mohair. Sericulture, an ancient branch of agriculture in Turkey, has survived in the Bursa region. As of 1974, the annual yield of cocoons was 1,600 tons.
FISHING. Turkey also has a fishing industry. The catch, which totals approximately 180,000 tons per year, comes from the Sea of Marmara, the Gulf of Izmir, and the eastern part of the Black Sea. The principal fishes here are the Black Sea anchovy (72,000 tons in 1970), Atlantic mackerel, horse mackerel, gray mullets, and fishes of the genus Thunnus (20,000 tons).
FORESTRY. Forests occupy 20 million ha, or approximately 25 percent of the country’s territory. They are located mainly in inaccessible mountainous regions and are owned almost entirely (approximately 98 percent) by the state. Species of pine and spruce predominate. The oak Quercus vallones, whose acorns are used in the production of tanning agents, and incense trees are also important. In 1974,14.8 million cu m of round timber were logged.
Industry. Manufacturing accounts for approximately 82 percent of the value of industrial output. Mining contributes approximately 10 percent, and power generation 7–8 percent. Factories and plants with at least 200 workers make up less than 4 percent of the country’s industrial enterprises but employ 70 percent of the labor force and provide 71.5 percent of industrial output. Industry is concentrated chiefly in the western and central regions of the country around Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana, Bursa, and Eskisehir. Industry is only beginning to develop in the economically backward eastern vilayets.
POWER PRODUCTION. The country’s main energy resources are anthracite (chiefly found in the Zonguldak-Eregli region), lignite (near Kütahya), and petroleum (in the southeast). The petroleum covers one-fourth of domestic needs. Ambarh and Seyitem-er, the largest thermal power plants, have capacities of 410 megawatts (MW) and 300 MW, respectively. The largest hydroelectric plants are the Sanyar, on the Sakarya River (160 MW); Hirfanli, on the Kizil River (148 MW); Demirkôpru, on the Gediz River (69 MW); and Seyhan, on the Seyhan River (48 MW). The total capacity of the country’s thermal and hydroelectric power plants is approximately 3.4 gigawatts. The first turbine-generator units of the Keban hydroelectric plant on the Euphrates River, the rated capacity of which is 1,240 MW, are now in operation. The Gôkçekaya hydroelectric plant (300 MW) on the Sakarya River is among the plants currently (1976) being built.
MINING. Production of chromites (Guleman, Eskisehir, and other regions; 645,000 tons in 1975) is sufficient to place Turkey third (after the Republic of South Africa and Rhodesia in 1972) among the capitalist and developing countries. Borates (mainly near Bandirma; 971,000 tons), antimony ores (near Turhal), iron ores (Kirikkale, Divrigi, Besparmak, and other regions), and tungsten ores (Ulu Dag, Gôrdes) are also mined, as are copper ores (Murgul, Ergani, and other regions), manganese ores (near Fethiye, Egrigôz, Yozgat, and Eregli), mercury ores (Konya), complex ores (Elâzig and Seyhan regions), bauxites, and sulfur.
MANUFACTURING. The most highly developed sectors of the country’s manufacturing industry are food processing and the production of textiles, building materials, and chemicals. The food-processing industry comprises a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises that process agricultural produce, animal products, and fish. There are 18 sugar refineries (producing 700,000–800,000 tons of sugar a year), more than ten meat-packing plants, 15 dairy plants, and a number of small and medium-sized vegetable and fish canneries and enterprises producing vegetable oils. The largest tobacco factories are in Istanbul, izmir, Samsun, Adana, and Malatya.
Approximately 50 large and medium-sized textile factories are in operation in Istanbul, Izmir, Adana, Kayseri, Nazilli, Malatya, Gaziantep, Tarsus, and other cities.
Cement is produced in Istanbul, Ankara, Sivas, and other
|Table 2. Sown area and harvest of the chief crops|
|Sown area (thousand ha)||Harvest (thousand tons)|
|Cotton (cotton fiber)||474||660||838||119||273||598|
cities, and glass and glass products are manufactured in Pasabahçe (near Istanbul), Çayirova, Izmir, and Adapazari. There are paper mills in Izmit, Dalaman, Giresun, and Çaycum. The country’s largest sawmills are in Istanbul, Ayancik, Zongul-dak, Sinop, Ordu, and Rize. Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, and Adana also have furniture factories.
Most of the chemical industry’s output comes from the mineral-fertilizer plants in Kütahya, iskenderun, Mersin, Samsun, and Yanmç. Enterprises producing acids are located in Bandirma, izmit, Karabük, and Murgul, and there are gunpowder plants in Ankara and Kirikkale. The country’s larger cities have enterprises producing household chemicals. Two automotive tire plants in izmit and one in Adapazari were built with the aid of foreign capital.
Ferrous metallurgy is undergoing development. There are enterprises in Karabük and Eregli, and a plant is under construction in iskenderun. This plant’s first division, which is currently in operation, has a capacity of 1 million tons; the capacity of the second division will be 2 million tons (with expansion, 4 million tons).
Among the country’s nonferrous metallurgical enterprises are a ferrochromium plant in Antalya, blister-copper plants in Sam-sun, Ergani, and Murgul, a lead plant in Keban, and an aluminum plant in Seydisehir. Metalworking and textile machinery and steam boilers are produced, as are various types of industrial presses and electrical equipment. There is also machine building of transportation equipment (locomotives, railroad cars, ships, motor vehicles) and agricultural equipment (tractors, combine harvesters, plows). Refrigerators, washing machines, and other electrical household appliances are assembled using imported parts. Table 3 summarizes the output of the principal industrial goods.
|Table 3. Output of the leading industrial products|
|1By contents of Cr2O3|
|2By content of metal|
|Electric power (billion kW-hrs). . . . . . . . . .||0.8||2.8||15.6|
|Anthracite (million tons). . . . . . . . . .||2.8||3.6||4.8|
|Lignite (million tons). . . . . . . . . .||0.7||1.3||6.2|
|Oil (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||17.0||375.0||3,100.0|
|Chromium ore1 (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||207.0||221.0||232.0|
|Iron ore2 (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||143.0||444.0||1,297.0|
|Antimony2 (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||1.3||1.4||5.93|
|Manganese ore2 (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||16.0||17.5||6.63|
|Blister copper (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||12.0||27.0||27.0|
|Petroleum products (million tons). . . . . . . . . .||—||3.5||12.3|
|Pig iron (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||113.0||248.0||1,300.0|
|Steel (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||91.0||265.0||1,809.0|
|Cement (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||396.0||2,040.0||10,850.0|
|Paper and cardboard (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||18.0||56.0||367.0|
|Cotton fabrics (million m). . . . . . . . . .||152.0||517.0||1,225.0|
|Woolen fabrics (million m). . . . . . . . . .||9.0||22.0||49.0|
|Sugar, refined (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .||141.0||644.0||806.0|
Transportation. All of Turkey’s railroad lines (8,000 km in 1975) are single-track, and there are only limited facilities for passing. As of 1975, there were 717 steam locomotives, 242 diesel locomotives, and 18 electric locomotives.
There are 51,000 km of highways and 160,000 km of dirt roads. As of 1975, there were 261,300 automobiles, 223,800 trucks, and 59,500 buses.
The merchant fleet had a total tonnage of 994,700 in 1975. The chief ports, with their freight turnovers in 1973 (including oil) given in millions of tons, are Istanbul (6.3), Mersin (7.8), Izmit (3.5), Izmir (1.8), iskenderun (1.7), and Samsun (1.5).
Important international air routes pass through Turkey. Foreign airlines operate routes through Turkey linking Western Europe with the Middle East, the Far East, and Southeast Asia. Turkey’s international airports are Yesilkôy (Istanbul), Esen-boga (Ankara), Çigli (izmir), and Adana.
Foreign trade. In 1975, the total value of Turkey’s exports was $1,401,100,000, and its imports $4,738,700,000. Of the goods exported in 1975, 58 percent were agricultural products (cotton, tobacco, dried fruits, nuts), 37 percent were finished goods (textiles, beverages, chemicals), and 8 percent were industrial raw materials (ores of ferrous and nonferrous metals). Imports that year comprised machinery, industrial and transportation equipment, and some consumer goods. Turkey’s chief trading parters in 1974 were the Federal Republic of Germany (accounting for 22 percent of Turkey’s exports and 18 percent of its imports), the United States (9 and 9 percent, respectively), Italy (6 and 7 percent), Switzerland (6 and 6 percent), Great Britain (5 and 7 percent), France (4 and 7 percent), Lebanon (7 percent of exports), and Iraq (9 percent of imports).
Since the mid-1960’s, Turkey’s economic relations with the socialist countries, especially the USSR, have expanded. By 1974, trade turnover between the USSR and Turkey was ten times greater than in 1964. In 1974, the USSR absorbed 5 percent of Turkey’s exports and accounted for 3 percent of its imports. In accordance with the agreements on economic and technical cooperation of Mar. 25,1967, and July 10,1975, the USSR has aided Turkey in the construction of a metallurgical plant in iskenderun, an aluminum plant in Seydisehir, an oil refinery in Izmir, a sulfuric acid plant in Bandirma, and a plant for fiberboard in Artvin. (The first division of the metallurgical plant and part of the aluminum plant are in operation, and the other enterprises are in full operation.) A Soviet-Turkish agreement on joint construction of an irrigation dam on the Akhurian (Arpa) River was signed in October 1973.
Tourism is an important industry. Turkey was visited by 1,341,500 tourists in 1973, providing an income of $172 million.
The country’s currency unit is the Turkish lira. According to the exchange rate set by the Gosbank of the USSR in July 1976, 100 Turkish liras was equivalent to 4.72 rubles.
Economic regions. The western region, accounting for more than one-fourth of the country’s territory and approximately two-fifths of its population, is agroindustrial. The most developed region, it forms Turkey’s industrial heartland, employing 66 percent of all industrial workers and contributing 69 percent of the total output of the manufacturing industry (chiefly in Istanbul, Izmir, and their environs).
The central region, occupying approximately two-fifths of the territory and containing approximately two-fifths of the population, is also agroindustrial, but here agriculture is the leading sector. Farming is to a significant extent commercial, and industry is less developed. The central region has 25 percent of the industrial workers and accounts for 24 percent of total industrial output; industrial activity is centered in Ankara.
The eastern region, with one-third of the territory and approximately one-fifth of the population, is a backward agricultural area. Livestock raising is the main economic activity. The eastern region accounts for 25 percent of the country’s income from livestock raising, 16 percent of the country’s grain harvest, and less than 10 percent of the total harvest of fruits and industrial crops. The region has 9 percent of the industrial work force and contributes 7 percent of the industrial output. Most of the oil production and mining of iron and copper ores, chromites, and complex ores is concentrated here.
REFERENCESAlibekov, I. V. Gosudarstvennyi kapitalizm v Turtsii. Moscow, 1966.
Çillov, H. Ekonomika Turtsii. Moscow, 1971. (Translated from Turkish.)
Kireev, M. G. Natsional’nyi i inostrannyi kapital vo vneshnei torgovle Turtsii. Moscow, 1968.
Moiseev, P. P. Agrarnyistroisovremennoi Turtsii. Moscow, 1970.
Rozaliev, Iu. N. Osobennosti razvitiia kapitalizma v Turtsii. Moscow, 1962.
P. P. MOISEEV
The armed forces consist of the army, the air force, and the navy. The president is the commander in chief, but supervision of the forces is the responsibility of the minister of defense. As of 1975, the armed forces numbered approximately 455,000 men. Manpower needs are met through conscription, the term of active military service being 20 months. The army (approximately 367,000 men) comprises 15 divisions, 13 separate brigades, two armored cavalry regiments, and three unguided-missile battalions (armed with Honest John rockets). There are also artillery, engineering, and other units. Armaments are chiefly of US manufacture.
The air force (48,000 men) has approximately 300 combat aircraft and two guided-missile battalions (Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles).
The navy (approximately 40,000 men) has 15 submarines, 14 destroyers, seven convoy ships, 11 torpedo boats, 27 gunboats, and 14 other craft. Naval and military bases include those at Golciik, Istanbul, Izmir, Eregli, and Mersin. Most of the units of Turkey’s armed forces form part of the combined armed forces of NATO.
Medicineand public health. According to statistics provided by the World Health Organization, Turkey had a birth rate of 41.2 and a mortality rate of 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1974. There are no precise data on the infant mortality rate, which is estimated at between 90 and 150 per 1,000 live births. The leading causes of death include cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors. Infectious and parasitic diseases are widespread. About 450,000 cases of active tuberculosis were recorded in 1971. Malaria occurs chiefly in the southeast, and leprosy is endemic to the eastern and western vilayets. Trachoma is widespread in the eastern and southeastern regions. New cases of poliomyelitis have recently been recorded.
Since 1963 the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare has been nationalizing Turkey’s health services. In 1972 there were 768 hospitals with 75,500 beds, or 2.1 beds per 1,000 inhabitants; of these, 49,000 beds were in the 586 state-operated hospitals. In 1972, outpatient care was provided by 371 hospital polyclinics, 437 private polyclinics, 292 medical aid centers, 872 public health centers, and 2,400 public health stations, as well as by 62 healthcare centers for mothers and children, 759 child-care stations, and 301 dispensaries.
In 1973, Turkey had about 22,800 physicians (one per 1,600 inhabitants), of whom 8,800 were state-employed (1971), 4,300 stomatologists, 4,800 pharmacists, and 21,600 middle-level medical personnel (1972). Physicians are trained at five university medical faculties and seven medical schools (1974). Middle-level medical personnel are trained at more than 60 educational institutions. Expenditures for public health amounted to 7.9 percent of the state budget for 1967–68.
A. A. ROZOV
Veterinary services. In 1974, a number of new outbreaks of animal diseases were reported in Turkey. These included foot-and-mouth disease (465), anthrax (465), sheep pox and goat pox (1,645), glanders (46), Newcastle disease (82), rabies (907), contagious agalactia of sheep and goats (38), blackleg (205), entero-toxemia (456), piroplasmosis (169), and contagious pleuropneumonia of goats (88). Other common diseases are brucellosis, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis, echinococcosis, common liver fluke, cysticercosis, theileriasis, anaplasmosis, salmonellosis, and scabies. The extent of some infectious diseases is difficult to ascertain because reports on their occurrence are not mandatory or because they are recorded only at some dairy farms.
Infectious animal diseases are prevented primarily by vaccinating susceptible animals, chiefly those in productive herds and those near urban areas. Preventive measures against dangerous diseases are essentially limited to Thrace. When a disease spreads in Anatolia, an immunity barrier is set up in Thrace.
Veterinary services are supervised by an administrative board attached to the Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Husbandry. There are also veterinary administrative boards in the vilayets, and veterinary services and clinics in rural areas. Quarantines are maintained at the seaports. About 40 stockyards throughout the country have veterinary facilities.
Turkey has veterinary research institutes for the diagnosis of disease and the manufacture of vaccines and serums in Etlik (a suburb of Ankara), Pendik (25 km from Istanbul), Elâzig, and Samsun. The same functions are carried out by a foot-and-mouth-disease institute located 20 km from Ankara. An institute in Bornova controls the quality of biologicals. Diseases are diagnosed in laboratories at Afyon, Bursa, Adana, Denizli, and Erzurum and in the bacteriological institute in Diyarbakir. A brucellosis center in Istanbul supervises measures to control that disease. Veterinary research is also conducted in the laboratory of sheep diseases of the bacteriological institute in Istanbul and in a number of livestock-breeding institutes. Veterinarians are trained at the veterinary faculty of the University of Ankara and its Elâzig division. In 1974, Turkey had 1,881 veterinarians.
S. I. KARTUSHIN
A modern educational system was established in Turkey after the proclamation of the republic. Universal, compulsory, and tuition-free primary education was introduced in 1924, and coeducation was introduced at all levels in 1927. In 1972 the overall illiteracy rate was 44.5 percent; the rate was 30.5 percent for men and 59.1 percent for women. Five to 6 percent of the state budget is spent on education each year; in 1972 this figure amounted to 1.2 billion liras. Universal compulsory eight-year education was introduced by law in 1973.
Preschool child care is limited. In 1972, 2,400 children between the ages of three and six were enrolled in 118 state-operated kindergartens; there were also 70 private kindergartens.
Children enter primary school at the age of seven. The five-year primary school is divided into two cycles of three and two years. There were 5.4 million pupils (90 percent of the children in the population) in primary schools in 1975.
The secondary school consists of two stages: a three-year middle school and a two- to four-year lycée. Education at the middle schools is tuition-free; tuition is charged at the lycées. In the upper grades of the lycée there are two courses of study, one concentrating in the humanities and the other in the natural sciences and mathematics. In the 1975–76 academic year there were 915,400 students attending the middle schools and 332,000 students attending the lycées.
The system of vocational education includes three- to five-year vocational lycées and institutes that provide specialized secondary education, as well as six-month to three-year vocational courses for adolescents and adults who have not completed a course of study. In 1975, 370,000 students were attending vocational institutes and lycées and 76,900 were attending vocational courses. Some 6,600 workers attended on-the-job courses at large industrial enterprises in 1972.
Teachers for the primary and middle schools are trained at teacher-training institutes, whose enrollment in 1974 totaled 127,100. Teachers for the lycées are trained at specialized institutes of education, which had 13,700 students in 1974.
The system of higher educational institutions comprises universities, academies, and higher schools. Courses of study range from four to six years, and tuition is charged. The private higher schools were nationalized in 1971. All educational institutions are now state-operated.
The largest universities are Istanbul University (founded 1453) and the University of Ankara (1946). Important specialized universities include the Middle East Technical University in Ankara (1956) and Hacettepe University in Ankara (1966–67), Turkey’s largest medical training center. Provincial universities that train specialists for various economic regions include the Aegean University in izmir (1955) and Atatürk University in Erzurum (1957). In 1975 there were about 217,000 students attending higher educational institutions.
The largest libraries are the National Library in Ankara (founded 1946; 550,000 volumes), the libraries of the University of Ankara (1950; 430,000 volumes) and Istanbul University (1925; 250,000 volumes and 18,600 manuscripts), and the Library of the Grand National Assembly in Ankara (1920; 172,000 volumes).
The major museums are the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (founded 1923) and the Ethnographical Museum (1927), both in Ankara, the Saint Sophia Museum (1934), and archaeological museums and the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul.
IU. A. LI
Natural and technical sciences. To a certain extent, the Ottoman Empire inherited the scientific and technical achievements of Byzantium and Western Europe. This was especially true of artillery and military engineering, as seen in the fortresses of Anadolu Hisan and Rumeli Hisan. Active in the first half of the 15th century were the mathematician and astronomer Kadi-zâde-i Rumî (in Bursa), the logician and physician Haci Pasa (in Konya), and the geographer Ali bin Abdurrahman (in Edirne). Ali Kusci, who studied under Ulug Beg, fled after the destruction of the Samarkand observatory to Asia Minor, where he founded the first Turkish school of mathematics and science (in Istanbul) and laid the foundation for astronomical and geodetic measurements in Turkey.
An extensive body of Turkish scientific literature, both translated (from Greek, Arabic, and Persian) and original, appeared in the period from the second half of the 15th century through the 17th century. Much of it was devoted to medicine and geography. Lûtfi Tokadî (executed as a heretic in 1494) produced a number of works in the late 15th century on mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, and the classification of sciences. The latter half of the 15th century and the 16th century were marked by an interest in navigation and geography. Many Arabic manuscripts containing geographical descriptions and navigational information were brought to Turkey from Syria and Egypt after the conquest of those countries in the early 16th century. The Turkish admiral Piri Reis, who revised a number of Portuguese and Venetian works that have not come down to us, compiled a map of the world in 1513, and in 1523 he compiled an atlas of the seas (The Navy) that served as a reference work throughout the entire era of sailing ships. Sidi Ali Reis left a navigational description of the Indian Ocean entitled The Ocean and an account of his travels through South Asia and the Middle East entitled Mirror of Countries. Valuable historical and geographical information is contained in Ali Ekber’s description of his journey to China and in Mehmed Âçik’s book View of the Worlds.
The best-known works of the 17th century are the encyclopedic compilation Mirror of the Worlds of Kâtib Çelebi (Haci Halife), who was the first to bring together the data of European and Arab cosmography, and the ten-volume Book of Travels of Ev-liya Çelebi, which contained descriptions of Turkey, southern Russia, the Balkans, Central Europe, and Egypt.
The influence of European scientific literature increased in the 18th century, a process furthered by the opening in 1727 of the first Turkish printing establishment. Geographical data were recorded in sefaratname, documents of Turkish embassies in European and other countries. Scholarly works appeared on mathematics (by Gelenbevî Ismail Efendi), cartography, and Turkish flora and fauna. Turkish horticulture, in particular the cultivation of tulips and roses, enjoyed world renown in the 18th century. The first Turkish educational institution to offer a program of study in the exact sciences—an artillery school in Üsküdar—was opened in 1737. A school for navigators, artillerymen, and military engineers was founded in Istanbul in 1761, followed in 1773 by a school of naval engineering (today the Technical University of Istanbul) and in 1795 by a school of civil engineering—the Miihendishane. Together, these schools trained a corps of specialists for the country.
A military medical school (1826) was founded during the period of reforms of Mahmud II. Notable scientific figures of the 1820’s and 1830’s included the mathematicians Hüseyn Efendi and Ishak Efendi, the anatomist and physician Sanizade Ataul-lah, and the physician Mustafa Behcet Efendi.
Turkey’s mineral resources were investigated at this time. Coal deposits were discovered in the Zonguldak basin in northern Anatolia in 1828. The mining of deposits of copper and iron ores, magnesite, and other minerals began in the mid-19th century. The reforms of the Tanzimat (“regulations”) period provided a certain stimulus to scientific development in Turkey. Schools of agriculture and veterinary medicine were founded in 1847, followed by a school of forestry in 1858 and a medical school in 1866. The Turkish Medical Society (1856) and a scientific society (1861), the first organizations of their kind in Turkey, were established mainly to popularize European science; however, original research was also conducted under their auspices, especially in mathematics (Vidinli Tevfik Pasa, Salih Zeki). A school of civil engineering was opened in 1884, and a veterinary school in 1895. In the late 19th century, applied research was carried out in veterinary medicine, forestry, and agriculture.
After the Young Turk revolution of 1908, studies were made of Turkey’s natural resources with the aid of French and German specialists. In the years 1909–13, the chromite and bauxite deposits in the Taurus Mountains were explored and analyzed, as were the boron (priceite) deposits near Bandirma and the mercury-antimony ores in central Anatolia.
Scientific research was conducted at research and educational institutions founded in Turkey with the aid of Germany, France, and, from the early 20th century, the United States. In 1912 a department of engineering, which later became a center for industrial research and development, was created at Robert College, an American institution founded in Istanbul in 1863.
The war for independence and the reforms carried out by Atatürk stimulated the scientific community in Turkey. Chemical (1919), electroradiographical (1924), microbiological (1931), and surgical scientific societies were founded in Istanbul, and a veterinary society (1930) was founded in Ankara. Turkey now has its own specialists in mathematics (Husni Hamid Bey and his school), medicine (Assaf Dervis Paşca, Ahmed Burhaneddin, Mustafa §evket Bey, Neset Evger Bey, Tevfik Remzi), and radiology (Subhi Nesat Bey and his school). New centers of learning were founded, and in 1933 departments of physics, mathematics, and medicine and a geographical research institute were established at the University of Istanbul. A pedagogical institute named in honor of Atatürk (1926) and an institute for mineral research and exploration (1935) were founded in Ankara.
After World War II, a geological society (1946), a biological society (1949), and an institute of standards (1960) were established. The postwar period has also witnessed the founding of the Marmara Scientific and Industrial Research Institute (1972), the University of Ankara (1946), and the Middle East Technical University (1956, funded by the UN), in Ankara, and the Aegean University, in Izmir (1955). Atatürk University was founded in Erzurum (1957), the Black Sea Technical University in Trabzon (1963), and Bosporus University in Istanbul (1971).
B. A. STAROSTIN
Social sciences, PHILOSOPHY. During the period of feudalism (14th to 18th centuries), philosophical thought in Turkey was influenced by Muslim medieval philosophy, particularly as elucidated in the works of Ibn al-Arabi, Ghazzali, and Averroës. The best-known Turkish thinker of the time was Sheyh Bedreddin Si-mavi, who upheld pantheism, the eternality of the world, and the idea of social equality. The hegemony of the reactionary clergy that began in the 16th century led to religious fanaticism and cultural stagnation.
Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, philosophical currents in Turkey reflected the influence of Western bourgeois philosophy. After the Great October Socialist Revolution, the concepts of Marxism became well known in Turkey owing to the works of such thinkers as M. Subhi and S. Hiisnii.
The works of Ziya Gôkalp, a follower of E. Durkheim, laid the foundations for the development of sociology in Turkey. Modern Turkish sociologists conduct empirical sociological research (N. Abadan and M. Kiray) and deal with economic and sociopolitical aspects of Turkish life. Many sociologists, such as H. Z. Úlken and M. N. Çanki, maintain idealist views, but others, including D. Avcioglu and M. Soysal, propagate socialist ideas. An intense struggle has developed concerning the role of religion. A reactionary traditionalist school, represented by A. F. Basgil, A. Yalman, and A. H. Basar, believes that Islam can counteract the growing influence of socialism in Turkey, and opposes a secularized state. Bourgeois scholars N. Berkes, T. Z. Tunaya, and S. Mardin support laicism and denounce the reactionary clergy.
Different versions of Turkish socialism are based on petit bourgeois Islamic socialism and bourgeois nationalist concepts (C. S. Barias), social-reformist theories (H. Ôzgen and M. Aybar), and leftist concepts (M. Belli and D. Perinçek). At the same time, the works of B. Boran and S. Aren testify to the growing influence of scientific socialism.
Sociological research is conducted at the universities of Istanbul and Ankara. The sociological journal Sosyoloji dergisi (Review of Sociology) has been published since 1945.
M. S. MEIER
HISTORY. Among the earliest historical works in Turkish are anonymous chronicles of Ottoman history (early 15th century). The main historical writings in the Middle Ages were the dynastic chronicles of court biographers (shahnamed). The best-known 15th-century chroniclers included Uruc ben Adil, Âsik Pasazade, and Nesri. The chief representatives of Turkish feudal historiography, which flourished from the 16th to 18th centuries, were Ibn Kemal, Sadettin, Pecevi, Muneccimbasi, and Naima. The traditions of feudal historiography were still alive in the 19th century, as seen in works by Cevdet Pasa and Vefik Pasa.
Bourgeois historiography in Turkey emerged in the Tanzimat period. Turkish historians of the second half of the 19th century sought to overcome the descriptive approach of the medieval chronicles and to adopt the ideas and methods of European historiography. After the Young Turk revolution of 1908, the Ottoman Historical Society was founded; its aim was to study and publish archival documents. The training of professional historians began at Istanbul University. However, the overall level of Turkish historiography in this period remained low, and Turkish historians imitated the works of their European counterparts.
A new stage in Turkish historiography began after the victory of the Kemalist Revolution. The Turkish Historical Society, founded in 1931, was under the influence of Atatürk. It proclaimed that the chief task of Turkish historians was to analyze their nation’s history in greater depth; the aim was to attack the prejudices of those European bourgeois historians who viewed Turkey as a second-rate nation and who minimized the Turkish people’s contributions to world history. These new nationalist concepts were reflected in the four-volume History, which was a semiofficial interpretation of Turkish history from the earliest times through the republican period. In seeking to reinterpret their country’s history, Turkish historians often expressed extremely nationalistic opinions, and in many works propagated the ideas of Pan-Turkism.
Beginning in the 1930’s, Turkish historians dealt with the nation’s social, economic, cultural, and religious history. Works on Ottoman history were accompanied by an increasing number of studies on the history of the Seljukids of Asia Minor in the 13th and 14th centuries, the ethnogenesis of the Turks, the early history of the Turkic peoples, and the history of material culture. Important works were written in the 1930’s and 1940’s by M. F. Koprülü, A. R. Altmay, I. H. Uzuncarsih, and A. inan. Their studies made innovative use of such historical sources as archival materials, vakfiye (clerical deeds of trust), literary works, folklore, and the historiography of neighboring peoples.
After World War II and particularly in the 1950’s and 1960’s, such aspects of modern history as the Kemalist reforms and the national liberation war of the Turkish people under Atatürk engaged the interest of a number of Turkish historians, including Y. H. Bayur and F. R. Unat. Numerous studies on 19th- and early 20th-century Turkish history focused on Turkey’s transformation into a virtual colony of the imperialist powers (E. Z. Kar-al, T. Z. Tunaya, N. Berkes, S. Mardin). The socioeconomic and political development of Ottoman society in the Middle Ages was analyzed by Ó. L. Barkan, M. Akdag, H. inalcik, M. T. Gokbil-gin, A. N. Kurat, S. Tansel, and A. Gôlpinarli.
A more profound analytic approach was developed by a number of Turkish historians. Such historians, left-wing political figures, and journalists as B. Boran and M. Tunca have studied the development of social thought and the emergence and development of workers’ and socialist organizations. Bourgeois historiographers have focused on the history of the Turkic peoples (O. Turan, M. A. Kôymen, I. Kafesoglu), ethnography (H. Barlas and K. Günçer), archaeology (§. A. Kansu and A. M. Man-sel), the history of Turkish art (O. Aslanpa), and applied historical disciplines. Although most of these works contain abundant factual material, their scholarly value is reduced by the authors’ nationalistic and even chauvinist views.
Historical research is coordinated by the Turkish Historical Society and is conducted at universities with research institutes, including Istanbul University’s institutes of economic and social history, Oriental studies, Turkology, and Islamic studies and the University of Ankara’s institutes of history and of the history of the Turkish Revolution. There is an archaeological research center in Antalya.
Historical studies are published in the journals of the Turkish Historical Society, Belleten (Bulletin, since 1937) and Belgeler (Document, 1964) and in the journals of Istanbul University, Tarih dergisi (Review of History, 1949), Tiirkiyat mecmuasi (Journal of Turkish Studies, 1925), Vakiflar dergisi (Waqf Review, 1947), and Iktisat fakültesi mecmuasi (Journal of the Faculty of Economics, 1939). Historical research is also published in the journals of the University of Ankara, Tarih arasttrmalandergisi (Review of Historical Research, 1963) and Dil vetarih-cografya fakültesi dergisi (Review of the Faculty of Letters, History, and Geography, 1942).
M. S. MEIER
ECONOMICS. The development of national economic studies in Turkey began after the victory of the national liberation movement led by M. K. Atatürk (1922). Until then, Turkish economists had adhered to Western European bourgeois theories of political economics.
The development of economics in Turkey was closely associated with the development of the Turkish national economy. During the first years of the Turkish Republic, when the government was encouraging private capital, the concept of economic liberalism and a positive view of allegedly neutral and nonex-ploitative Belgian, Swedish, Polish, and Dutch investment were predominant. With the transition to state capitalism in the 1930’s, Turkish economists focused on the role of the state in social production, the theoretical aspects of the interaction between the state and private sectors of the economy, and the long-range prospects of these two sectors.
The bourgeois apologists T. Alp, A. H. Baçar, and C. Kutay, seeking to obscure the class-oriented nature of state capitalism, declared that state capitalism fulfilled the nation’s needs and ensured class harmony. The petit bourgeois radicals S. S. Aydemir, Y. K. Karaosmanoglu, V. N. Tor, and I. H. Tôkin regarded state capitalism as a uniquely Turkish form of social production that was neither capitalist nor socialist. Finally, the left-wing democratic economists viewed state capitalism not as an alternative to capitalism but as a means of artificially hastening the establishment of a capitalist system of production.
After World War II, the dominant view in Turkish economic policy called for a curtailment of state enterprises and a return to economic liberaization. In the 1940’s and 1950’s, Turkish economics again adhered to various Western bourgeois theories and methods of political economy, beginning with their terminology and ending with their socioeconomic approach.
Circumstances favoring the development of economic theories in Turkey that differed from official doctrine did not exist until after the coup of May 27,1960. Both internal and external factors favored this development: the victory of socialism in a number of European and Asian countries, the disintegration of the imperialist colonial system, and the growing concept of noncapitalist paths of development in the developing countries.
The official economic doctrine adhered to traditional, conservative principles of moderate progress within the limits of legality and order (§. Bilkur, Ó. C. Sarc, M. Eté). At the same time, Turkish economists developed concepts and theories that were not supported by the ruling circles. The concept of regulated capitalism, a conglomeration of ideas borrowed from 19th-century bourgeois economic theories, Keynesianism, and Kemalism, called for a solution to the sociopolitical crisis in Turkey. The advocates of regulated capitalism sought the adoption of capitalism, masking their aims with phrases about social justice, a people’s state, and development under democracy. Those favoring this concept included B. Eçevit, I. Giritli, S. Kücük, and other proponents of the left-of-center course proclaimed by the Republican People’s Party. The theory of new statism, or national (democratic) socialism, eclectically combined Kemalism, social reformism of the laborist school, and theories of noncapitalist development (D. Avcioglu, M. Aksoy, and M. Soysal). Finally, the theory of noncapitalist development, supported by the Turkish Workers’ Party, included dogmatic postulates and scientific tenets (B. Boran, F. Naci, S. Aksoy, and A. H. Aytekin).
The number of economists using the categories and methodology of Marxist-Leninist economic theory in their research grew during the 1960’s and 1970’s.
The adherents of different economic theories are in disagreement over the development of national capitalism and the system of the mixed economy, the agrarian question, the problems of industrialization, and the limits and potentialities of economic planning. The need to establish plans of economic development compelled Turkish economists to analyze the national income.
The centers of economic studies are the humanities faculties of the universities of Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir, which have institutes that conduct specialized economic research. Analytic applied research is carried out by the central state planning organization and at the research centers of other state organizations that deal with socioeconomic development, including ministries, departments of state enterprises, and large state banks. Research is also conducted by private economic centers, including the Turkish Economic Society, the Union of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey, the research groups of the large private banks Isbankasi, Yapi ve Kredi Bankasi, and Akbank, and individual companies.
Economic journals and newspapers are Ekonomi (since 1944), Istanbul ticaret odasi mecmuasi (Journal of the Istanbul Chamber of Commerce, 1884), and Türkiye iktisat gazetesi (1952).
P. P. MOISEEV
LINGUISTICS. The systematic description and study of Turkish began in the mid-19th century, during the Tanzimat period. Numerous grammars, textbooks, and treatises were published, as well as Semsettin Sami’s Dictionary of Turkish (1899–1901). In the 19th century, research on the Ottoman literary language was strongly influenced by the Arabic school of linguistics and reflected few typological features of Turkish.
The necessity of creating a new, colloquial form of literary Turkish emerged after the national liberation revolution of 1918–23 and changed the orientation and methods of linguistic research. The measures taken to alter the language, including the reform of the alphabet in 1928, became known as the linguistic revolution (Dil Devrimi) and were associated with the work of the Turkish Linguistic Society (founded 1932).
Works on Turkish lexicology and lexicography have included the normative, interpretative Dictionary of Turkish (1945), Ômer Asim Aksoy’s Dialect Dictionary (vols. 1–8, 1963–75), the Historical Dictionary of the Turkish Language by Aksoy and D. Dilçin (vols. 1–7, 1963–74), A. Püsküllüoglu’s Dictionary of Original Turkish Words and Terms (1966), F. Devellioglu’s Dictionary of Turkish Slang (1970), and the New Orthographical Guide (1970). Other publications have included encyclopedic, bilingual, and terminological dictionaries.
Research is conducted on Turkish dialectology by A. Cafe-roglu, Aksoy, H. Z. Kosay, and O. Aydin, on morphology and syntax by A. C. Emre, T. N. Gencan, and V. Hatiboglu, and on phonetics by T. Banguoglu.
Outstanding works on the history, present status, and study of Turkish have been written by H. Eren, H. Kun, A. Dilâçar, and A. S. Lèvent. Many classics of Turkish and Turkic literature have been published with translations and commentaries, including rare manuscripts kept in Turkish archives. Notable publications include the Compendium of Turkish Words, Sayings, and Verses of Mahmud Kasgari, translated by B. Atalay (vols. 1–3, 1939–72), The Knowledge of Blissful Government (vols. 1–3, 1942–43), and Dede Korkut Kitabi (vols. 1–2, 1958–63), published by Muharrem Ergin with index and grammatical outline.
The main linguistic centers are the University of Ankara, the Turkish Linguistic Society in Ankara, and Istanbul University.
The chief periodical publications in the field of linguistics are the annual Turk dili arasflrmalan vilhgi (Belleten) (Yearbook of the Turkish Language [Bulletin], since 1953) and several journals, including Turk Dili (The Turkish Language, since 1951).
A. N. BASKAKOV
Scientific institutions. There is no unified system of scientific institutions in Turkey and no administrative center for such institutions. Some coordinating functions are carried out by the central state planning organization, which determines the general orientation of research, the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (founded 1963 and subordinate to the Council of Ministers), and a number of ministries. Since the 1960’s, 0.4 percent of the gross national product has been allotted to scientific research (only 0.35 percent in 1970); this amounts to about 400 million liras, divided almost equally between state and private scientific institutions. An additional fund of 400 million liras aids in the development of state-supported industrial research projects.
Most scientific research is conducted at the universities, which carry out both their own projects and projects commissioned by state and private enterprises. Many ministries have research groups. The large private enterprises have laboratories and small research staffs. The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey conducts a limited amount of research and publishes an informational bulletin on current research projects. Turkey has a total of about 10,000 researchers, of whom 38 percent work in the field of medicine, 26 percent in agriculture, 22 percent in technology, and 10 percent in the humanities.
Scientific and technological progress has led to an increased demand for trained specialists, which Turkey’s higher educational institutions are as yet unable to supply. Turkish scientists, in search of better conditions for research, emigrate to the industrially developed capitalist countries of America and Europe. This loss of qualified specialists is highly detrimental to the development of research.
G. I. STARCHENKOV
As of 1977, about 1,000 newspapers and journals were published in Turkey, mainly in Istanbul and Ankara and mainly in Turkish. The most influential are the daily newspaper Adalet (founded 1962; circulation, 3,600), which supports the Democratic Party; Bans, (1971; circulation 13,500), the unofficial organ of the Republican People’s Party (RPP); Günaydin (1968; circulation, 500,000); Cumhunyet (1923; circulation, 150,000), one of Turkey’s most influential and informative newspapers; and Dünya (1951; circulation, 29,500) and Istanbul (1949; circulation, 29,200), both right-wing newspapers.
Other influential newspapers are Mûhyét (1950; circulation, 329,000), a bourgeois liberal newspaper; T. C. Resmi Gazete (1920), an official government newspaper; Son Havadis (1948; circulation, 20,800), which supports the Justice Party; Tercüman (1961; circulation, more than 400,000), a right-wing newspaper; and Hürriyet (1948; circulation, 708,200). Journals include Yanki (Echo; founded 1972; circulation, 4,500); Yedi Gün (Seven Days; founded 1972; circulation, 5,000), which supports the RPP; and Ozgiir Insan (Free Person; 1972), the theoretical organ of the RPP.
The Anatolian News Agency, the leading Turkish information agency, was founded in 1920. It is a joint-stock company most of whose shares are owned by the government. There are also several private information agencies.
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, founded in 1964, is a jointly owned company dominated by private capital. Radio programs have been broadcast since 1927 and are presently broadcast abroad in English, Arabic, Bulgarian, Greek, German, Rumanian, Serbo-Croatian, Turkish, and French. Television programs have been broadcast since 1968.
The earliest works of Turkish folklore preserve pre-Islamic myths about the creation of the world and the origins of man. The most important heroic epic is the Oghuzname cycle, which incorporated such myths. The Islamic form of the Oghuz epos was the Kitab-i dede Qorqut cycle. Legendary tales with a historical basis appeared in the 13th century. The cycle of dastans about the legendary hero Kôroglu is particularly renowned. Other important works were romantic short stories of the hikâyets genre, fairy tales, realistic, humorous, and other types of folktales, animal fables, anecdotes (including those about Nasreddin Hoca), proverbs, sayings, and riddles. The rhythmic four-line songs known as mâni, the lyric songs of the türkü and koçma genres, and the mocking taslama songs were very popular.
The Turks, who adopted Islam relatively late, adopted Muslim culture as well. In the Seljuk state of Rum, Arabic was the language of religion and learning, and Persian the language of court poetry. The earliest reliably dated works of Turkish-language literature in Asia Minor date from the mid-13th century. The first works of early Turkic, or Anatolian, literature (mid-13th to mid-15th centuries) were influenced by Sufism. Two conflicting systems of versification sought to predominate over the earliest Turkish poetry: that of Turkic oral folk poetry, which was based on syllabic and syllabotonic metrics, and the Arabic and Persian metric system of the aruz, a system that was to dominate Turkish poetry for six centuries. Together with the aruz, the Turkic poets adopted such Arabic and Persian poetic forms as the mathnawi, qasida, andghazal.
The oldest Turkish Sufi work is considered to be the Book of Fate by Ahmed Fakih (died c. 1250). His pupil, Seyyad Hamza, wrote the narrative poem Yusufve Zeliha. The most outstanding representative of Sufi poetry in Asia Minor was a Persian-language poet from Middle Asia, Jalal al-Din Rumi (1207–73), who also wrote poetry in Turkish. The traditions established by Rumi were continued and developed by his son, Sultan Veled (1226–1312), whose verses are of interest only as the first precisely dated poetic works written in Turkish. Sufi poetry was also written by the wandering dervish Yunus Emre (late 13th century to 1320 or 1321). The first important literary work written in Turkish was the mathnawi epic The Book of the Stranger (1330) by the Sufi Âsik Pasa (1271–1332).
A new genre that appeared in Turkish poetry at the turn of the 15th century was the romantic mathnawi, a type of chivalric romance in verse, based primarily on themes from Nizami Ganje-vi’s Khamseh (Quintet). Examples of the genre included the Iskandar-namah of Ahmedi (1334–1413) and Khusrau and Shirin by Seykî Sinan (13717–1431?). Later Turkish poetry was stylistically complex and was overloaded with artificial imagery, epithets, and similes, as well as with Arabic and Persian borrowings.
The classical period of Turkish poetry began in the mid-15th century and continued to the early 17th century. Court poetry flourished, but poets without a patron at court had difficulty earning a living. An example was Hamdî Çelebi (1449–1503), author of the first Khamseh in Turkish. Later court poets wrote numerous variants of the Khamseh; some of these poets abandoned Sufism and adopted epicurean motifs in their works. Lyric poetry, like the works of the later court poets, attained a high level, and the art of versification became increasingly refined. Many poets, limiting themselves to stereotyped panegyric, philosophical, and Sufi lyrics, remained within the confines of conventional poetic techniques and imagery, which they subjected to endless variations. However, many gifted poets with other artistic and socially oriented aims sought, within the limits of the poetic tradition of medieval Middle Eastern literature, to reflect contemporary life. Such poets included Ahmed Pasa (died 1497), Necati (died 1509), Mesihi (14707–1512), Mihri Khátún (1456–1514), and Mahmud Baki (1526–1600).
Satiric and didactic literature gained importance in the early 17th century. Cognizant of the current decline of the Ottoman Empire, poets sought to admonish the vice-ridden aristocracy, government officials, bribetakers, and embezzlers of public property. Satiric poetry was popular, but its authors were often subjected to harsh retribution from the authorities; the satirist Omer Nefî (born c. 1572; died 1635) was executed by strangulation. The hypocrisy of the clergy, the abuses of judges and pashas, and the drunkenness and debauchery that reigned at court were depicted in the mathnawi Hayriye by Nabî Yusuf (1642–1712).
The poet Alladdin Sabit (1650–1712) wrote for the popular reader; his narrative poem Ascension Songs was the first work of Muslim literature to depict in a humorous vein the flight of the prophet Muhammad through the seven heavenly spheres. Sabit’s work inaugurated a new trend in literature that was opposed to panegyric poetry. This trend influenced even the work of a typical representative of court poetry, Ahmed Nedim (1681–1730), who created a new form of the sarki (song) genre in imitation of Turkish folk songs.
In the 18th century, Sufi poetry revived, particularly in the work of Seyh Gâlib (1757–99), author of the narrative poem Beauty and Love.
Turkish poetry of the early 19th century was in a state of stagnation. Modern literary prose did not yet exist in Turkish literature; prose was used mainly for treatises on medicine, theology, and historiography. Nevertheless, a number of poets sought to bring poetry closer to life by widening their range of themes, liberally using colloquial language, and simplifying their style. This trend is seen in two poems in the mukhammas genre by Vasif Enderuni (died 1824) and in the poems and particularly the narrative poem The Sufferings in Kesan by Izzet Molla.
In their conflict with the supporters of feudal culture and the epigones of classical poetry, publicists and writers of the Tanzi-mat period upheld the ideas of bourgeois enlightenment and pursued the new goals of dealing with man, society, and actual life. The literature of this period constituted a transition from the old to the new. Turkish writers became acquainted with the works of French authors. The epistle and drama appeared, as well as the first examples of literary prose: the short story, the historical novel, the socially oriented novel of everyday life, and the adventure novel. Works of literature criticized the despotic feudal Muslim traditions.
Major literary figures of the Tanzimat period were Ibrahim Sinasi (1826–71), a poet, a supporter of French literature, the author of the first Turkish anticlerical comedy, The Poet’s Marriage, and a collector of Turkish folklore; Namik Kemal (1840–88), author of patriotic plays and of the first Turkish historical novels and socially oriented novels of everyday life; Semsettin Sami (1850–1904), prosaist, dramatist, and lexicographer; and Ahmed Mithat (1844–1913), the founder of the short-story genre. These writers simplified and reformed literary Turkish, bringing it closer to the vernacular.
Innovative poets of the second half of the 19th century included Abdülhak Tarhan Hâmid (1852–1937) and Recaizade Ekrem (1847–1913), who created new rhythms and lyric themes and dealt with the inner world of the lyric hero. Their work was influenced by the poetry of Hugo, Lamartine, and A. de Musset. Works of folklore, and literary scholarship, as well as critical articles, were published with increasing frequency.
The persecution of progressive figures (for example, Namik Kemal, who died in exile) began in the late 1870’s, owing to the onset of reaction. A harsh censorship was established. These developments gave rise to mystical and decadent trends in Turkish literature. Disillusionment and a narrow, restricted outlook were typical of the group of writers associated with the journal Serveti Fiinun (Scientific Review), which played an important role in Turkey’s literary and public life. The journal was the focal point of the new Turkish literature, which was strongly influenced by the contemporary French writers Zola, de Maupassant, and the Goncourt brothers and, to a lesser extent, by Stendhal and Balzac.
The new literature was distant from the people, but neither did it accept the despotic regime of sultan-ruled Turkey. A romantic melancholy marked the early poetry of the leader of the Serveti Fiinun group, Tevfik Fikret (1867–1915). A civic spirit was apparent in Fikret’s poetry beginning in the early 20th century. Fikret was a bold innovator who enriched Turkish poetry by transforming the aruz. He also introduced into lyric poetry the theme of compassion for the sufferings of ordinary people.
In novels and short stories influenced by European works, Halid Ziya Usakligil (1866–1945), Mehmet Rauf (1875–1931), Hüseyin Cahit Yalçin (1874–1957), and Ahmet Hikmet (1870–1927) introduced new themes and criticized such aspects of contemporary life as the power of money, the hard fate of the average man, and the corrupted morals of merchants involved in foreign commerce. In the early 1900’s, literature entered a new period of stagnation owing to the reemergence of reaction.
After the Young Turk revolution of 1908, a distinctively national realistic literature emerged in Turkey, a development that was accompanied by conflicts among different literary schools. The proponents of democratization and of adherence to actual life appealed for new themes, the simplification of language, the elimination of foreign words, and the abandonment of traditional forms and meters. At the height of this dispute appeared the Turkish Poems of Mehmet Emin Yurdakul (1869–1944), written in the syllabic hece meter that was typical of folk poetry. Yurda-kul’s work was a bold attempt to liberate Turkish poetry from traditional influences. However, the poet’s use of the reactionary themes of war and of Turan, the mythical homeland of all the Turkic peoples, had a negative influence on his followers, the Pan-Turkish poets. The works of these poets were limited in vocabulary, lacked original imagery, and were repetitious and monotonously emotional in tone.
Later improvements in syllabic versification were made by the poets Orhan Seyfi Orhon (1890–1972), Yusuf Ziya Ortac (1895–1967), Faruk Nafiz Çamhbel (1898–1973), and Halit Fahri Ozansoy (1891–1971). Their contribution was all the more significant since the opposing literary camp included such masters of verse as Yahya Kemal Beyath (1884–1958) and Ahme Hasim (1884–1933), who reformed the aruz system and adapted the aruz to the Turkish language.
During this period, the realist prosaists Refik Halid Karay (1888–1965), Aka Gündüz (1885–1958), Hüseyin Rahmi Gürpi-nar (1864–1944), and Ómer Seyfettin (1884–1920) were the first Turkish writers to deal with provincial life and to depict Anatolia from a progressive viewpoint. They strove for concreteness, conciseness, stylistic expressiveness, and well-rounded characterization. The satiric short stories of Ómer Seyfettin had a strong influence on the Turkish prose of later decades. However, his work was sometimes nationalist in tone. The influence of nationalism was also evident in the novels New Turan (1912) by Halide Edib Adivar (1883–1964) and The Last Evening by Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoglu (1885–1974).
After World War I, when Turkey was occupied by foreign troops, literary life virtually ceased to exist. Light, fashionable literary works were published in the journals, which were censored both by the occupying powers and by the sultan’s authorities. Literary life revived with the emergence of the national liberation movement in Anatolia. Newspapers published poems urging the people to resist the occupying forces. The struggle for Anatolia, which soon became a struggle for Turkish independence, attracted the vital forces of art and literature.
A number of writers took part in the war of national liberation, but the theme of liberation was extensively treated in literature only after the establishment of the republic (1923), with the appearance of the novels Strike the Hussy (1926) by Halide Edib, Green Night (1928) by Resat Nuri Güntekin (1892–1956), and Sodom and Gomorrah (1928) by Yakup Kadri. The national liberation revolution was also the subject of the plays Tragedy of One Night (1925) by Resat Nuri and Blue Lightning (1933) by Aka Gündüz. These and many other works denounced antipatri-otic factions. Their authors were seriously concerned with Turkey’s future, but they allotted the leading role in the liberation movement to solitary heroes, while depicting the people as a faceless, passive mass.
Although writers treated the national liberation struggle in essentially the same manner, they differed in their appraisal of Turkey’s further development and of the Kemalist Revolution. The writers Yakup Kadri, Halide Edib, and Mehmet Rauf advocated a distinctive path of development for Turkey; national unity would eradicate class differences if the cultural level of the people were raised and a cultural revolution carried out in the countryside. Literary criticism followed a general policy of condemning the reactionary past.
Another group of writers proceeded from the assumption that class differentiation was inevitable. They attacked the arbitrary power of government officials, bribery, unemployment, and poverty. These writers reflected the people’s disillusionment both with the revolution and with bourgeois reforms. The denunciatory trend in the literature of the 1930’s was most apparent in the works of such writers as Sadri Ertem (1900–43), author of the first realistic social and historical novel in Turkish literature, When the Spinning Wheels Stop (1931), and Resat Enis Aygen (born 1909). Sabahattin Ali (1907–48), a novelist, short-story writer, and poet, depicted the growth of self-awareness and of protest in a man of the people in the novella Yusuf of Kuyucak (1937). Sabahattin Ali later appealed for revolution in his collection The Glass Pavilion (1947). Beginning in the 1930’s the fate of the individual in capitalist society was expressed in Turkish dramaturgy; examples were The Forgotten Man (1935) by Nazim Hikmet Ran (1902–63) and Selma (1936) by Musahipzade Celâl (1870–1959).
Outstanding works were written by the founder of revolutionary Turkish poetry, Nazim Hikmet Ran. His new metrics and meters, rhetorical tone, unusual and unexpected rhymes, images, and metaphors, and in particular his use of themes that had previously been considered unpoetical made him the acknowledged leader of the new school of poetry. It was in his works that the theme of the working class first appeared in Turkish poetry.
Fascist ideology became increasingly influential in Turkey during the period immediately preceding World War II. The official Turkish press became an outlet for Hitlerite propaganda. Many types of Pan-Turkish societies were active in Turkey. Meanwhile, progressive writers and journalists appealed for a struggle against fascism. Sabahattin Ali published the antifascist novel The Devil Within (1940). However, the fear of impending events demoralized Turkish society, and the works of many writers became permeated with pessimism and resignation.
Nevertheless, this period witnessed bold attempts to renew Turkish poetry and to emphasize its social purpose. The group of poets known as Tripod—Orhan Veli Kanik (1914–50), Melih Cevdet Anday (born 1915), and Oktay Rifat Horozçu (born 1914)—published the literary “Manifesto of Three” in the book Strange (1941). The manifesto urged that the worker and artisan be the heroes of poetry. Rhyme and meter placed restrictions on thought and consequently should be eliminated; poetry should depict everyday human concerns in the vernacular of the city and village. Tripod’s appeal for the humanizing of poetry was accepted by most Turkish poets of the 1940’s and 1950’s. The group’s poetic innovations, in conjunction with those of Nazim Hikmet Ran, determined the characteristics and direction of postwar Turkish literature.
The publication of Notes of a Village Schoolteacher (1948) and of Our Village by Mahmut Makal (born 1923) provided an impetus for the further development of the peasant theme in literature. A new literary character appeared: the educated person who goes to the countryside to aid the peasants in their struggle with the landowners, rich peasants, and clergy. These heroes are defeated in the unequal struggle, but the seeds they sow yield fruitful results or will do so in the future. Novels with this type of narrative included Tin Can (1955) by Yasar Kemal (born 1922), Dark World (1951) by Orhan Hançerlioglu (born 1916), and The Snakes’ Revenge (1959) by Fakir Baykurt (born 1929).
Turkish writers again focused on the national liberation movement, which was most vividly reflected in Nazim Hikmet’s epic work Dastan on the Liberation Struggle, written in prison between 1941 and 1946. Several novels by Kemal Tahir (1910–73) depicted Istanbul during the national liberation struggle: Men of a Captured City (1956), Prisoner of a Captured City (1958), and The Weary Fighter (1965).
Fundamental changes took place in Turkish poetry of the 1960’s. The poets Fazil Hüsnü Daglarca (born 1914), Behçet Ne-catigil (born 1916), Bedri Rahmi Eyüboglu (born 1913), Cahit Sitki Taranci (1910–56), and Ziya Osman Saba (1910–57) continued to develop democratic traditions. On the other hand, the poets of New Movement 2, a school that emerged in the 1950’s (as distinct from Orhan Veli Kanik’s earlier New Movement 1), became involved in formalist experimentation. New Movement 2 was led by llhan Berk (born 1916), who advocated trans-sense poetry. Similarly, a number of prose writers influenced by modernist literary movements defended the idea of art for art’s sake and urged that the writer be a detached observer of life.
A new type of literature known as the literature of despair emerged as a consequence of the ten-year tenure of power of the Democratic Party (1950–60), which was ended by the coup of 1960. The events of that decade of reaction have become the theme of many novels, the most outstanding of which is Alone With One’s Own Self (1975) by Vedat Türkali (born 1919). A number of novels of the 1970’s have dealt with the responsibility of the intelligentsia and the need for the intelligentsia to play a socially useful role in Turkey’s development. Writers of the younger generation, including Erdal Óz, Bekir Yildiz, and Mehmet Seyda, follow the trend of critical realism, dealing with difficult issues of Turkey’s political and economic life and with the hard lot of the Turkish workers.
The peasant theme, which was central to the literature of the 1940’s, is given a new interpretation in Turkish literature. Owing to the impending agrarian reforms, contemporary writers recognize the need for a new approach to the peasant theme and realize that the agrarian question cannot be resolved by the forcible seizure of landowners’ estates, which was described in novels by Yaçar Kemal and Samim Kocagôz. The novels of Muzaffer Buyrukçu, Tank Dursun, Kemal Bilbaçar, and Muhtar Korükcü depict unemployment, religious fanaticism, and ignorance as Turkey’s social ills. The works of Aziz Nesin (born 1915), which are published in large editions and translated in many countries, satirize the negative social conditions that warp man.
The resurgence of the democratic movement in the early 1960’s promoted the development of Turkish dramaturgy. Officialdom and bureaucracy in Turkey were criticized in such plays as The Guilty Ones by Çetin Altan (born 1926) and I Am the State (1965) by Recaizade Bilginer (born 1922). Plays dealing with social ills and reaction have included One Pound of Virtue (1958) by Resid Erduran (born 1928), Saban, the Savior of the Homeland (1967) by Haldun Taner (born 1916), and Karagôz and Nonos the Barber (1969) by Aziz Nesin. Taner’s outstanding topical drama The Tale of Ali From Kesan (1964) was the first Turkish play written in a Brechtian spirit and the first to follow the traditions of the Turkish folk puppet theater (karagôz). Plays by Russian and Soviet dramatists are very popular in Turkey.
Turkish literary scholarship has long-standing traditions that date from the ancient tezkires (anthologies of poetry). In the 19th and particularly in the 20th century, Turkish literary criticism, while following national traditions, has been influenced by European literary scholarship. Modern Turkish literary scholars have included Mehmed Fuad Koprülü (1890–1966), Agâh Sirri Lèvent (born 1894), Ismail Habib Sevük (1892–1954), Pertev Naili Bora-tav (born 1907), Nurullah Atac (1898–1957), Sabiha Sertel (1898–1968), Tahir Alangu (1916–73), Rauf Mutluay (born 1925), Cevdet Kudret Solok (born 1907), and Behçet Necatigil.
REFERENCESSmirnov, V. D. Ocherk istorii turelskoi literatury. St. Petersburg, 1891.
Krymskii, A. E. Istoriia Turtsii i ee literatury, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1910–16.
Gordlevskii, V. A. “Ocherki po novoi osmanskoi literature: Pere-khodnaia pora osmanskoi literatury.” In lzbr. soch., vol. 2. Moscow, 1961.
Garbuzova, V. S. Poety srednevekovoi Turtsii. Leningrad, 1963.
Garbuzova, V. S. Poety Turtsii XIXv., fase. 2. Leningrad, 1970.
Garbuzova, V. S. Poety Turtsiipervoi chetverti XX veka. Leningrad, 1975.
Fish, R. G. Pisateli Turtsii— knigiisud’by. Moscow, 1963.
Kiamilev, Kh. U istokov sovremennoi turetskoi literatury. Moscow, 1967.
Al’kaeva, L., and A. Babaev. Turetskaia literatura: Kratkii ocherk. Moscow, 1967.
Aizenshtein, N. A. Iz istorii turetskogo realizma. Moscow, 1968.
Mashtakova, E. I. Iz istorii satiry i iumora v turetskoi literature (XIV-XVII vv.). Moscow, 1972.
Al’kaeva, L. O. Iz istorii turetskogo romana: 20–50-e gody XX v. Moscow, 1975.
Koprülü, M. F. Turkedebiyati tarihi. Istanbul, 1928.
Gibb, E. J. W. A History of Ottoman Poetry, vols. 1–6. London, 1900–09.
Bombaci, A. Storia della letteratura turca. [Milan, 1956.]
Utkan, M. Bugünkü Turkyazarlan. Ankara, 1960.
Akinci, G. Turk romanmda kôye dogru. Ankara,1961.
Eren, N. Turkey Today and Tomorrow (The New Literature). London, 1963.
Kocatürk, V. M. Turk edebiyati tarihi. Ankara, 1964.
Tatarh, I., and R. Mollof. Huseyin Rahmi’den Fakir Baykurta mark-sistacidan türk romani. Istanbul, 1969.
Mutluay, R. SOyilin Turk edebiyati. Istanbul, 1973.
Bezirci, A. 2 yeni olay. Istanbul, 1974.
A. A. BABAEV and V. S. GARBUZOVA
Numerous remains of primitive art and the arts of ancient eastern despotic states, including the Hittite state, have been found in what is now Turkey. Asia Minor was an important region for the art of ancient Greece, the states of the Hellenistic era, and Byzantium.
Medieval Turkish art was based on the artistic knowledge of the peoples of Iran, Georgia, Armenia, the Arab countries, and Byzantium, as well as the Seljuks. In the late 12th and 13th centuries, Konya and other cities were built of stone and surrounded by strong fortress walls, with a citadel in the center and residential districts that were often separate from each other. Religious architecture was characterized by the harmonious use of distinct stereometric forms; iwans were built with open courts or domed central halls, and pendentives were widely used. Among nonreli-gious public buildings, which included elements of defense architecture, the caravanseries and public baths are especially well known. Buildings were ornamented with reliefs featuring intricate geometric designs, stylized floral (sometimes patterned) motifs, and inscriptions, as well as enameled tiles in dark blue and green tones that often formed entire geometric mosaics. Part of the walls was usually left smooth, which lent a special plasticity to the decorative patterns. Wood-carving, featuring strictly geometric ornamentation, manuscript illumination, rug-making, weaving, and fine metalworking were also practiced during this period.
While Turkish architecture of the 14th century and the first half of the 15th century primarily reflected the construction skills of the Seljuk period, the architecture of the late 15th and 16th centuries was characterized above all by the creative treatment of Byzantine traditions. Towns consisting of architectural ensembles gradually evolved. In developing domed religious structures, Turkish masters of the late 15th and 16th centuries, especially the architect Sinan, built impressive, integrated structures that were strictly centric in their treatment of spatial composition. In the same period, the beauty of architectural forms was enhanced by the introduction of numerous vaults, niches, and windows, while interiors were filled with ornamental murals and inlaid marble panels. Palaces were ornamented with particular opulence: the walls of pavilions built amid gardens were adorned with ceramic “carpets, ” in which floral motifs predominated. Madrasas, mausoleums, public baths (usually domed), and elegant fountains were also built in Turkish cities in the 12th through 19th centuries. Urban residential architecture was dominated by framework houses with overhanging upper stories.
European art had a considerable influence on Turkish miniature-painting in the late 15th and 16th centuries. The beginning of Turkish easel painting, as represented by the painter Sinan, also dates from this period. Turkish miniature-painting flowered in the 16th century, when it was distinguished by clear narrative imagery, angular contours, and vibrant but somewhat unrefined color schemes based on the contrast of pure colors, for example, in works by Osman and Nigyârî.
One of the most important branches of the decorative and applied arts of the 15th through 19th centuries was ceramics, particularly Iznik household vessels and enameled objects; predominantly coral red in color, these vessels featured stylized bouquets, which became more realistic in the second half of the 16th century. Silks and brocades were also produced, usually with a deep red background and gold and silver patterns. Rugs were made, characterized by medallion and star motifs, and metal utensils and arms were also produced.
During the period of the decline of the Ottoman Empire, buildings were often excessively heavy in form. Motifs of European eclecticism penetrated Turkish architecture in the 18th and 19th centuries. Beginning in the late 1920’s, urban building projects were developed and master plans were approved for certain cities, such as Ankara. These new plans provided for the preservation of historical centers and the development of new residential districts; however, urban construction in most Turkish cities in the 20th century was marked by chaotic growth. In the first half of the 20th century, construction was planned chiefly by foreign architects, but gradually a national school of modern Turkish architecture developed, headed by E. Onat and S. H. Eldem. These architects combined forms of European neoclassicism and functionalism with traditional elements; for example, bright color and ornamental inlay were widely used and apartment floor plans took into account Turkish living habits.
In the 19th century, Turkish artists first studied in Europe, primarily in Germany and France. Some imitated foreign salon art, while others, such as O. Hamdi Bey, combined elements of modern European realism with the principles of Turkish medieval art. H. A. Lifij, who portrayed patriarchal life in old Turkish cities, headed the Turkish school of impressionism in the early 20th century.
The events of the national liberation revolution of 1918–23 and the democratic transformations of the first years of the republic were portrayed in posters, which combined features of popular woodcuts, manuscript illumination, and easel painting. Historical themes were also important in the genre paintings of such artists as N. Ismail and I. Çalh.
In 1929, the Society of Independent Artists was organized. Another society, Group D, was formed in 1933. It undertook a search for national Turkish identity. Some members of Group D turned to Hittite art, for example, the painter and sculptor C. Tollu, while others were influenced by medieval miniatures and others studied folk art, notably C. Dereli and T. Zaim. Many members of Group D adopted the techniques of cubism, for example, N. Berk, or gradually shifted to abstract art, for example, S. Berkel. Monumental sculpture was important in strengthening the realistic current in Turkish art of the 1960’s and 1970’s, when pop art and other extreme modernist trends were gaining force; leading sculptors include A. H. Bora, H. Gezer, and Z. Miirit-oglu. Graphic art, including satirical art, is also important in the realistic trend, as represented by the works of I. Balaban, a painter as well as a graphic artist, and those of M. Aslier and N. Günal.
Many traditional handicrafts, such as rug-making, continue to develop.
REFERENCESVseobshchaia istoriia iskusstv, vol. 2, book 2; vol. 6, book 1. Moscow, 1961–65.
Vseobschaia istoriia arkhitektury, vols. 8,11. Moscow, 1969–73.
Miller, Iu. Iskusstvo Turtsii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Miller, Iu. Khudozhestvennaia keramika Turtsii. [Leningrad, 1972.]
Yetkin, S. K. L’Architecture turque en Turquie. Paris .
Berk, N., and H. Gezer. 50 yihn Türk resim ve heykeli. Istanbul, 1973.
Tapan, M. 50 yilin Türk mimarisi. Istanbul, 1973.
Turkish folk music is related to that of other Turkic peoples. The mani (a simple song based on rhyming couplets) and the kosma türkü (a melodically developed lyrical song) suggest analogous genres in Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan. Traditional Turkish music has links with Arab-Iranian culture; it has similar modes (makam) and large-scale cyclical forms (fasti) that recall the structure of the Arab nuba. Turkish folk music may be divided into works having a restricted melody range and regular rhythm (kink hava, or short melody) and extended works with a freer melody range that do not observe a strict metrical and rhythmic pattern (uzun hava, or long melody). Turkish melody is characterized by the frequent juxtaposition of tones that change chromatically as the melody moves from one mode to another, creating a distinctive, florid effect.
There are a great many modes in Turkish music, including the hicaz, zengüle, kürdi, and gülistan, but they may be reduced to 13–15 basic modes. The rhythm of Turkish music is unique: rhythmic patterns range from 3 or 4 parts to more than 20, with notes grouped into usul (various rhythmic combinations) within a cycle. Often cycles consist of frequently changing, irregular measures, and inexact time signatures are commonly used. The aksak, or “limping, ” rhythm is particularly popular.
Singing in unison (sometimes with instrumental accompaniment, also in unison) is popular in Turkey. In the past, works of this type, called beste, were performed only by male choruses. Many of them were composed in the 17th century by Buhûrî-zâde Mustafa Itri Efendi. Instrumental works are highly developed and complex in form: the pesrev (prelude) is a rondo-like piece used to open a fasti cycle, and the taksim is an improvisational piece also included in the fasil. Popular musical instruments include the rebab, tanbur, kemence, oud, kovar, düdük, zuma, def, and davul.
The encyclopedist and scholar D. K. Kantemir, who lived in Constantinople from 1687 to 1710, made a major contribution to the development of Turkish music. His musical works, written in various Turkish classical forms, remained popular to the end of the 19th century. European music, chiefly Italian and French, reached Turkey in the 16th century. G. Donizetti, brother of the famous composer, worked in Istanbul from 1828 to 1856, training many Turkish musicians. His pupils became the founders of a national school of composition; they included Osman Ibrahim, Ali Rizâ Bey Kapdan-zâde, and Necib Yesârî-zâde.
The fruitful development of professional music in Turkey began only after the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Conservatories were established in Istanbul (1923), Ankara (1936), and Izmir (1951), and the Ankara Theater of Operetta was opened in 1928. The opening of opera houses in Ankara (1950’s) and Istanbul (1960) represented an important development in Turkish cultural life. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, a group of composers emerged, known as the Turkish Five: Cemal Resit Bey, Hasan Ferid Alnar, Ulvi Cemal Erkin, Ahmet Adnan Say-gun, and Necil Kâzim Akses. Contemporary composers include Bülent Tarcan, Ilhan Usmanbas, Nevit Kodalh, and Ferit Tüzün. Among prominent performers today are the violinist Aylâ Erduran, the pianist Idil Biret, and the singers Leylâ Ayse Gencer, and Ay han Baran.
Turkey has several symphony orchestras: the Presidential Philharmonic of Ankara, which succeeded the Court Military Orchestra founded in 1826, the Istanbul Symphony (1943), and the Izmir Philharmonic Society (1962). Other instrumental and vocal groups are also active. An annual music festival has been held in Istanbul since 1972.
REFERENCEVinogradov, V. “Na festivale v Stambule.” Sovetskaia Muzyka, 1975, no. 6.
RUSTAM-ZADE ZAUR PASHA OGLY
Theatrical spectacles have been performed in Turkey for centuries. The traditional forms of folk theater were the puppet and shadow theater (karagôz), street theater (orta oyunu), and the performances of improvising storytellers (meddah). These genres were the forerunners of the professional Turkish theater.
European theater troupes appeared on tour in Istanbul in the 19th century. Armenians and Greeks living in Turkey who had become acquainted with European theater formed the first amateur theater groups. The Gedik Pasa Theater was founded in 1869 and was directed by A. Vartovyan (real name, Güllü Agop). Its repertoire included world classics and works by leading Turkish writers, such as Ahmet Mithat and Namik Kemal. The first Turkish actors included Ahmet Fehim and Ahmet Ne-cip. Female roles were performed by Greek and Armenian actresses, since religious tradition forbade Turkish women from appearing on the stage. The Gedik Paşa Theater closed in 1884.
Attempts were made to organize theaters in the provinces. Ahmet Vefik Pasa, a translator and patron of the arts, opened a theater in Bursa in 1879, employing actors from the Gedik Pasa Theater. The Bursa theater existed more than three years.
Another significant theater, the Tuluat Theater (Improvized Theater), was founded at the turn of the 20th century and was headed by Abdiirrezzak Efendni.
The reactionary policies of Abdul-Hamid II halted the development of Turkish theater, but semiprofessional and amateur theaters were organized after the Young Turk Revolution of 1908. A national theater was opened in Istanbul, the Dariilbe-dayii Osmani (Ottoman Temple of Art). Founded in 1914, the theater staged its first production in 1916 and has been known as the State Theater since 1934. The company of this theater included the first Turkish actresses: Afife, Bedia, and Perihan.
The development of Turkish theater was greatly influenced by Muhsin Ertugrul, who popularized the best traditions of Russian and Soviet theater. A colleague of K. S. Stanislavsky and V. E. Meyerhold, he became director of the Dariilbedayii Osmani in 1927. He visited the USSR in 1925, 1927, 1934, and 1973. Western European plays were staged, as well as Turkish plays devoted to the national liberation struggle, for example, Faruk Nafiz’ The Hero and The Homeland, Behçet Kemal Çaglar’s The Shepherd and Attila, and later Nazim Hikmet’s The Skull and The Dead Man’s House. For many years the Dariilbedayii Osmani was the country’s leading theater.
After the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923, theaters were founded in Ankara, Izmir, and other cities and later became organized as state, city, and private theaters. Numerous amateur groups also appeared. The best-known theaters are the Büyük Theater, the Ankara Arts Theater, and the Friends’ Theater in Ankara and the Municipal Theater (in six buildings) and the Kent Oyunculari in Istanbul. The first children’s theater was founded in 1934. Certain companies still popularize the ancient art of the karagôz and orta oyunu. The repertoires of the various theaters include plays of Turkish classical and modern writers, as well as world classics. Progressive theaters present works by Russian and Soviet playwrights. Plays by Shakespeare, B. Brecht, L. N. Tolstoy, A. P. Chekhov, and M. Gorky are frequently presented.
Plays staged in the 1960’s and 1970’s included Güngôr Kalyon-cu’s The Victim, Nazim Hikmet’s Legend of Love, Yasar Kemal’s The Tin Can, Melih Anday’s Prisoners, and Haldun Taner’s The Tale of Ali From Kesan. Leading actors and directors include Y. Renter, C. Gókcer, V. R. Zobu, G. Erkal, H. Dormen, E. Cezzar, G. Siiruri, M. Canova, and B. Algan.
There is a Turkish branch of the International Theatre Institute, headed by M. Ertugrul. There is a department of theater at the University of Ankara, as well as an Institute of Research on the Theater. The monthly journal Tiyatro (Theater, founded 1969) is published in Istanbul.
REFERENCESPoznañska, K. Staraia i novaia Turtsiia, Moscow, 1974. Pages 168–75. (Translated from Polish.)
Cevdet, Kudret. Karagôz, vols. 1–3. Ankara, 1968–70.
Cevdet, Kudret. Ortaoyunu. Ankara, 1973.
Sevengil, R. A. Turk liyatrosu tarihi, vols. 1–5. Istanbul, 1959–69.
And, M. SOyilin Turk tiyatrosu. Istanbul 1973.
In 1914 the cameraman F. Uzkinay made the first Turkish documentary film, and in 1915 the Central Army Department of Cinematography was organized for the production of travelogues and documentaries. The first Turkish feature films were The Clutch and The Spy, both directed in 1917 by Sedat Simavi. From 1919 to 1922 cinematography was supervised by the Society to Aid War Invalids and Veterans. The society’s film department made The Governess (1919, based on a work by H. R. Gürpinar) and Binnaz (1920, based on a work by Y. Z. Ortaç), both of which were directed by Fehim Efendi. Also of note is the trilogy Bican Efendi the Schoolmaster, The Dream of Bican Efendi, and Bican Efendi the Economist, directed by Sadi Karagôzoglu in 1921.
In 1919 the brothers K. Seden Efendi and S. Seden Efendi founded the first film studio in Istanbul, reorganized as the Kemal Films Studio in 1922. The chief director at this studio, the outstanding Turkish theater figure M. Ertugrul, adapted several operettas to the screen and made historical films and dramas on contemporary themes. His most significant film was The Burning Shirt (1923, based on a work by H. E. Adivar), which was concerned with the national liberation struggle of the Turkish people; the cast included the Turkish actresses N. Ertugrul and B. Muvahhit, the first Turkish women to perform in a film in the history of Turkish cinema. In 1928, M. Ertugrul became head of the newly created film studio ipekfilm in Istanbul, where he created the first Turkish film with a sound record, On the Streets of Istanbul (1931), and the narrative film A Nation Awakens (1933, based on a work by N. N. Tepedelenlioglu), which was devoted to the Turkish struggle for independence. The influence of Soviet cinematography is evident in the battle scenes of the latter film, as Ertugrul lived in the USSR in 1925 and 1926.
In 1934, two Soviet directors made documentary films in Turkey: S. I. Iutkevich filmed Ankara, Heart of Turkey, and E. I. Shub filmed Turkey on the Rise: Turkish motion-picture workers took part in these films.
During World War II, the importing of foreign films was curtailed, which gave an impetus to Turkish film-making. The production of films increased after the war, and new film studios were created. However, as is the case today, most films sought commercial success by presenting fistfighting and shooting scenes or sentimental melodramas.
Progressive Turkish filmmakers, developing the traditions begun by Ertugrul, strive to bring to the screen such subjects as the life of the Turkish people, the plight of workers, and the workers’ struggle for their rights. The best films on social themes have included The White Handkerchief’(1955, directed by L. Akad), The Snake’s Revenge (1962, M. Erksan), Road Without End (1965, D. Sagiroglu), and Four Women in a Harem (1965, H. Refig). Other notable motion pictures include a series directed by Y. Güney, consisting of Hope (1970), Grief (1971), Father (1972), The Friend (1974), and Anxiety (1975). The films The Rebellious Land (1973, F. Tuna), Bedrana (1974, S. Duru), and The Prostitute (1975,0. Kavur) are also worthy of note.
Leading Turkish film actors include T. §oray, F. Girik, H. Kocingit, Y. Kenter, M. Yun, T. Yigit, H. Balamir, and H. Hamzaoglu.
The field of scientific and educational films has developed since 1955, and regular showings of such films have been organized in 13 vilayets. Since 1960, national film festivals have been held in Antalya and Izmir to encourage Turkish film-making. Turkish films have been shown at international film festivals since 1960. In 1974, 183 feature films were produced. The country has more than 3,000 motion-picture theaters, approximately half of which are permanent. There are ten major film studios and approximately 50 other film companies.
REFERENCEÖzön, N. Türk sinema tarihi. Istanbul, 1962.
A. A. GUSEINOV