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Related to TKIP: WPA2, CCMP


see Work Projects AdministrationWork Projects Administration
(WPA), former U.S. government agency, established in 1935 by executive order of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as the Works Progress Administration; it was renamed the Work Projects Administration in 1939, when it was made part of the Federal
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(1935–43) provided work for unemployed construction and theater workers, artists, writers, and youth. [U.S. Hist.: NCE, 3006]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


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(2) See Windows Product Activation.

(1) (Wi-Fi Protected Access) A security protocol for wireless 802.11 networks from the Wi-Fi Alliance that was developed to provide a migration from WEP. The WPA logo certifies that devices are compliant with a subset of 802.11i, while WPA2 certifies full support.

Strong Security
WPA and WPA2 use a sophisticated key hierarchy that generates new encryption keys each time a mobile device establishes itself with an access point. Protocols including 802.1X, EAP and RADIUS are used for strong authentication. A RADIUS server provides automatic key generation and enterprise-wide authentication.

For home and small business users who do not have an authentication server, WPA can be used in preshared keys (PSK) mode, which requires that a shared secret key be manually entered into the access points and each user's computer. The shared secret is used to automatically generate the encryption keys.

WPA (2003) - 802.11i Subset for Migration Upgrades
WPA's Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses the same RC4 algorithm as WEP for encryption but adds sophisticated key management and effective message integrity checking. TKIP was designed to be efficient enough to work in older WEP devices by updating their firmware to WPA. See WEP.

WPA2 (2004) - Full 802.11i
In addition to TKIP, WPA2 supports the AES-CCMP encryption protocol. Based on the very secure AES national standard cipher combined with sophisticated cryptographic techniques, AES-CCMP was specifically designed for wireless networks. AES-CCMP requires more computing power than TKIP, and migration from WEP to WPA2 requires new hardware. Devices running in WPA2 mode are not backward compatible with WEP. See 802.11i, AES-CCMP, 802.1X, EAP and RADIUS.

WPA3 (2018) - More Secure
WPA3 provides an encrypted connection in public hotspots. It also makes it extremely difficult to hack the password of the user's connection because a brute force attack would require interaction with the user's Wi-Fi for each "guess" (see brute force attack). In addition, if the password is eventually deciphered, "forward security" prevents the decryption of any data previously captured.

802.11 Encryption Methods
As 802.11 security protocols evolved, the encryption methods became more robust.

The Wireless Security Primer
Jon Edney and William Arbaugh's "Real 802.11 Security" (Pearson Education, 2004) covers every technical detail you will ever need to know about 802.11i, WPA, WEP and other related protocols. It is also a great primer on wireless security in general.
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References in periodicals archive ?
KEY SPECS: Security features include IEEE 802.11i compliant radio with AES-CCMP and TKIP; a complete suite of 802.1x EAP including EAP-TLS.
The two most important features beyond WPA to become standardized through 802.11i/WPA2 are: pre-authentication, which enables secure fast roaming without noticeable signal latency: and the use of the CCMP cipher suite in place of TKIP. CCMP is based on the AES cipher.
With Cisco Compatible Extensions V2, Cisco has augmented its wireless LAN extensions to support advanced security and authentication technologies, including Wi-Fi Protected Access and Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP).
-- Advanced encryption engine supports WEP, TKIP and AES
In contrast, WPA uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), generating a new key for every 10KB of data transmitted over the network.
While WPA-PSK still uses the RC4 encryption standard used in WEP, it implements temporal key integrity protocol (TKIP), which provides per-packet key mixing, a message integrity check and a re-keying mechanism.
In addition to the 40-bit encryption specified by the IEEE 802.11 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) standard, the BCM430x family includes hardware support of the 128-bit extension of WEP, 802.1x, Temporal Key Initiation Protocol (TKIP) as well as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) protocol planned for the forthcoming IEEE security specification (IEEE 802.11 TGi).
The new access points support WEP and WPA, WPA2 Personal and WPA2 Enterprise (802.11i) authentication and encryption standards, allow the use of central RADIUS servers, support the automatic bridge mode and protect connections with TKIP or AES coding, the company claims.
For encryption, WPA employs a technology called temporal key integrity protocol, or TKIE TKIP constantly replaces security keys using a complex algorithm, while encrypting and adding data-integrity features.
The AirStation 54Mbps AP will also support 802.1x and WPA with TKIP and AES with a future firmware upgrade.