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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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The country code for Turkey.
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Token Ring

An earlier local area network (LAN) access method developed by IBM. Conforming to the IEEE 802.5 standard, the Token Ring access method connects up to 255 nodes in a star topology at 4, 16 or 100 Mbps. All stations connect to a central wiring hub called the "Multistation Access Unit" (MAU) using twisted wire cable. Today, most Token Ring business networks have migrated to Ethernet.

Different than Ethernet
The Token Ring MAU may be a central hub, but it does not function like a shared Ethernet hub. Token Ring is more deterministic, which ensures that all users get regular turns at transmitting. With Ethernet, all users compete to get onto the network.

Type 1 and Type 3
Type 1 Token Rings allow up to 255 stations per network and use shielded twisted pair wires with IBM style Type 1 connectors. Type 3 allows up to 72 devices per network and uses unshielded twisted pair (Cat 3, 4 or 5) with RJ-45 connectors. Like Ethernet, Token Ring is a data link protocol and functions at layers 1 and 2 of the OSI model. See token passing, data link protocol and OSI model.


Token Ring Topology
Token Ring uses a logical ring topology, which provides more equal opportunity for each station to gain access to the network than the broadcast method used by Ethernet. All nodes connect to the MAU.











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References in classic literature ?
-- The Beagle sailed from Valparaiso to the south, for the purpose of surveying the southern part of Chile, the island of Chiloe, and the broken land called the Chonos Archipelago, as far south as the Peninsula of Tres Montes.
From Cape Tres Montes we sailed pleasantly along the lofty weather-beaten coast, which is remarkable for the bold outline of its hills, and the thick covering of forest even on the almost precipitous flanks.
-- We anchored in a snug little cove at the foot of some high hills, near the northern extremity of Tres Montes.
Green, reedy swamps; fields fertile but flat, cultivated in patches that made them look like magnified kitchen-gardens; belts of cut trees, formal as pollard willows, skirting the horizon; narrow canals, gliding slow by the road-side; painted Flemish farmhouses; some very dirty hovels; a gray, dead sky; wet road, wet fields, wet house-tops: not a beautiful, scarcely a picturesque object met my eye along the whole route; yet to me, all was beautiful, all was more than picturesque.
For the first time I remarked the sparkling clearness of the air, the deep blue of the sky, the gay clean aspect of the white-washed or painted houses; I saw what a fine street was the Rue Royale, and, walking leisurely along its broad pavement, I continued to survey its stately hotels, till the palisades, the gates, and trees of the park appearing in sight, offered to my eye a new attraction.
Now, John, the sun is over the trees; you must be brisker than this when the bugleman blows `Bows and Bills.'"
The sun had risen over Ashurst and Denny woods, and was shining brightly, though the eastern wind had a sharp flavor to it, and the leaves were flickering thickly from the trees. In the High Street of Lyndhurst the wayfarers had to pick their way, for the little town was crowded with the guardsmen, grooms, and yeomen prickers who were attached to the King's hunt.
Quickly, one after the other, one, two, three, four of the armoured Martians appeared, far away over the little trees, across the flat meadows that stretched towards Chertsey, and striding hurriedly towards the river.
The air was full of sound, a deafening and confusing con- flict of noises--the clangorous din of the Martians, the crash of falling houses, the thud of trees, fences, sheds flashing into flame, and the crackling and roaring of fire.
The men stopped now every few paces to fire and load, and in this manner moved slowly on from trees to trees.
Here, crouching and cowering be- hind some trees, the men clung with desperation, as if threatened by a wave.
Macallan tre ats you, I shall insist on a separation.