Taborites


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Related to Taborites: Prokop the Great

Taborites:

see HussitesHussites
, followers of John Huss. After the burning of Huss (1415) and Jerome of Prague (1416), the Hussites continued as a powerful group in Bohemia and Moravia. They drew up (1420) the Four Articles of Prague, demanding freedom of preaching, communion in both kinds (i.e.
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Taborites

 

members of the revolutionary antifeudal wing of the Hussite revolutionary movement. The Taborite Community (hence the name Taborites) was made up of heterogeneous social elements: broad strata of the peasantry, the urban poor, the lower clergy, artisans, and a segment of the lower gentry.

Basic to Taborite thinking, especially in the first period of the movement, was the revolutionary antifeudal peasant and plebeian ideology, the basis of which was the chiliastic teaching about “god’s kingdom on earth,” a kingdom of universal equality and social justice. The Taborites rejected the sacraments of the church and the luxuriant Catholic cult, and some rejected all of the Christian sacred rites and ceremonies. The left wing of the movement was made up of the Pickarts, who were opposed by the moderate Taborites, favoring primarily the interests of the prosperous peasants and well-to-do townsmen. In 1421 the moderate Taborites cruelly dealt with the leaders of the Pickarts (Martin Houska, for example).

In spite of disagreements, the Taborites remained the major military force in rebellious Bohemia. They created a field army under the command of Jan Žižka and developed advanced military tactics that provided for maneuverability and the use of battle wagons and artillery. The Taborite army, led by Mikuláš z Husi, Žižka, and Prokop the Great, soundly defeated five crusades organized by the anti-Hussite reaction. Along with the “orphans,” as the troops who had served under Žižka’s direct command called themselves after his death, the Taborites made a series of marches outside Bohemia. The Taborites’ disagreements with the burgher and knight elements (the Calixtines, or Utraquists) led to an open war between them. In a number of battles in 1423 and 1424 the Calixtines were defeated. On May 30, 1434, however, the Taborite army suffered a defeat at the hands of the united forces of the Calixtines and the feudal Catholic camp in a battle at Lipany; individual Taborite detachments continued the fight until 1437, when their last fortress, Sion, fell.

REFERENCES

See references under HUSSITE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT.

B. T. RUBTSOV

References in periodicals archive ?
In the decade of 1420, Chelcicky starts writing intensely in terms of the issues that he was contrary to Utraquists and Taborites. Molnar (1947) summarizes the break with both groups.
Even the dating of Atwood is more correct than Molnar, it is a fact that the writings of Chelcicky point to his separation from both Utraquists and Taborites.
Just remembering the hymn sung by the Taborites presented above.
(43) In this cosmic duel against the vile "princes of the earth", the radical reformers of the early 16th century were acting in the traditions of famous precursors, such as the Hussite Taborites. On one side, Thomas More's utopian construct--indirectly influenced by Plethon's work--will arguably leave the greatest imprint in the Western mind, struggling as it did to reconcile the Greek legacy of the Republic with the eschatological depictions of New Jerusalem.
A critical change took place when the secular State allied with reformist groups--in order to push back papal influence--and, crucially, to counter the radical totalist heterodoxies such as the early Joachites, Taborites or Anabaptists, whose victory would have meant a complete and total transformation of society.
Whereas the remnants of the Waldensians, Lollards and other Joachite-influenced sects could only survive in secret, the Hussite Taborites not only withstood their Czech rivals as well as several crusades, they spread terror across their borders into Hungary, Germany and reaching as far as the Baltic.
!"(14) Jan Pribram wrote in disgust that the radical Taborites considered themselves the sole holy, universal, church and community in all Christendom.(15) Pribram's charge must not be dismissed for this is precisely how the radicals viewed themselves.
The apocalyptic mood in Bohemia found a context for establishing this idea among the Taborites. An experiment developed wherein social divisions and structures of hierarchy were swept away: payment for rent and service forbidden, all goods to be held in common, material wealth collected before newcomers could be admitted to the community, certain former laws disregarded, all debtors released from their obligations, lord-peasant relationships dissolved, all persons henceforth became brothers and sisters, and private property was outlawed in the quest for a new social order.
In the end, the movement suffered defeat as a result of internal conflict between the radical Taborites and the more moderate Prague wing.
Bostick further distinguishes between "reformist" (Joachites) and "subversive" apocalypticism, the latter of which has both "secessionist" (Lollards) and outright "abolitionist" (Taborites in Bohemia) expressions.
The main body of the book focuses on the heretical wing in the reformation movement, which usually goes under the name of Taborites (with their affiliates the Orebites) and is marked by a rejection of substantial parts of medieval dogma and liturgy.
Even the Taborite chiliasm and the Orebite egalitarianism would continue, in a muted form, as a concept of the chosen people (to reprimand the Roman Church) and as a church of the commoners under later Utraquism.