Second, his theory of general education later connected with Michael Polanyi's (1966) tacit knowing
. Both of these ideas were directly challenged by James Bryant Conant's The Education of American Teachers and correspondingly received significant critique from Harry Broudy.
The rehearshal by Michael Polanyi, in 1962, with the article Tacit Knowing
: Its bearing on some problems of philosophy was one of the bases in which Nonaka & Takeuchi (1997) developed in Japanese companies innovative management actions, explained in the book A theory of organizational knowledge creation.
Put another way, technical rationality makes practitioners overlook the experimental dimension inherent in the reciprocal interaction between the behavioral world and their tacit knowing
, theories, values, and assumptions, and the existential orientation that is required for on-the-spot reflection and experimentation, and learning from 'what is going on right here, right now'.
Picking up on the work of Polanyi and others, Thomas and Brown note that tacit knowing
is the kind of knowing that builds from constantly changing experiences.
'Tacit knowledge, tacit knowing
, or behaving?', paper presented at the 3rd European Organisational Knowledge, Learning and Capabilities Conference, Athens, 5-6 April.
He called it "'tacit knowing
," a mysterious process that guided the human mind to generate new knowledge grasped by faith and sustained by a discourse with others who had come to share the same process.
I recall that, long before I encountered Polanyi's concept of tacit knowing
, I was aware of its functioning in my own experience.
Nonaka emphasized tacit knowing
as the origin of human knowledge.
Their emphasis on tacit knowing
as the origin of human knowledge directs our attention to the social and interactive nature of learning.
Especially important here is his discussion of scientific authority, an authority grounded in personal responsibility based on faith; as Wayne Booth pointed out a quarter-century ago, the whole structure will disintegrate if scientists lose their ability to trust tacit knowing
if they come to insist on exhaustively formalized procedures for all their practices.
The nurse is also open to using multiple forms of knowing including pandimensional modes of awareness (intuition, meditative insights, tacit knowing
) throughout the pattern manifestation knowing and appreciation process.