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(both: tī`nän`), city (1994 pop. 706,811), W central Taiwan, on the Taiwan Strait. The fourth largest city of Taiwan, it has industries producing metals, textiles, machinery, processed foods, and handicrafts. It is also a center for the marketing and processing of sugarcane, rice, peanuts, and salt, and there is an important fishing industry. Settled in 1590, Tainan is the oldest city of Taiwan. It was taken over by the Dutch and used as their headquarters from 1624 to 1662. It then became the island's capital under KoxingaKoxinga
, Mandarin Kuo-hsing-yeh [lord of the imperial surname], 1624–62, Chinese general, whose original name was Chêng Ch'êng-kung. From 1646 to 1660 he led many unsuccessful campaigns of Ming dynasty loyalists against the invading Ch'ing dynasty.
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 and his son. Called Taiwan or Taiwanfu, it remained the political center of the island until the transfer of government to Taipei in 1885, when the city was renamed Tainan. A cultural center, it has many temples, the shrine of Koxinga, and a modern college of engineering.



a city in China, in Taiwan Province; situated on the southwestern coast of the island of Taiwan. Anp’ing, the city’s outer port, is administratively part of T’ainan. Population, 485,000 (1971). T’ainan is a transportation junction and the trade and industrial center of a developed agricultural region that produces sugarcane and rice. There are also local sugar refineries and chemical and textile industries. Salt is mined near T’ainan.


, T'ai-nan
a city in the SW Taiwan: an early centre of Chinese emigration from the mainland; largest city and capital of the island (1638--1885); Chengkung University. Pop.: 754 000 (2005 est.)