The Deccan sultanates, strongly influenced by Persianate Shi'ite Islam, joined forces against the Hindu Vijayanagara ruler, an alliance that led to the defeat of Vijayanagara in the 1565 Battle of Talikota
. Through close reading of sources in local languages, Persian, Portuguese, and Italian, Subrahmanyam shows that the interaction among these principalities was far more complicated than the simple religious-political divide suggested (83).
Rather than describing Kishkindha as the "country of the monkeys," as does referring to the Ramayana tale of Vann and Sugriva, the Nuj[u.bar]m author identifies it more precisely with the town of Anegundi, frequently considered the mother-city of the rival Vijayanagar empire and residence of the Vijayanagar ruler, under the protection of 'Al[l.bar] '[A.bar]dil sh[a.bar]h in the immediate aftermath of the battle of Talikota in 1565.
(67) Even after the battle of Talikota in 1565, which saw the death of Rama Raya and the occupation of the city of Vijayanagar, 'Al[l.bar] '[A.bar]dil sh[a.bar]h continued to intervene in Vijayanagar politics, alternatively nurturing R[a.bar]ma R[a.bar]ya's brother Venkat[a.bar]dri and R[a.bar]ma R[a.bar]ya's son Timr[a.bar]j as rival contenders to the Vijayanagar throne.
(12) Vijayanagara failed to recover from the shock of the battle of Talikota (1565).
Ali forged an alliance with the other Sultans of the Deccan, and defeated and killed Rama Raya in the battle of Talikota in 1565.