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tall oil[′täl ‚ȯil]
(also tallol, liquid rosin), a dark viscous liquid with a density of 0.96–0.99 g/cm3 that is obtained from the decomposition by sulfuric acid of sulfate soap—a by-product of the sulfate pulping of cellulose. Crude tall oil is 30–50 percent rosin acids (C19H29COOH) and 35–55 percent fatty acids, including palmitic acid (C15H31COOH), oleic acid (C17H33COOH), and linolenic acid (C17H29COOH). It also contains neutral substances, moisture, a small quantity of sulfur compounds, and substances (oxidized) insoluble in petroleum ether. The percentages of the principal components can vary, depending on the type of wood used.
Crude tall oil is used to obtain tall-oil rosin and tall-oil fatty acids; small quantities are used as foaming agents in the dressing of ores. Refined tall oil is used in the paint and varnish industry to manufacture drying oils, mastics, and paints. Production of crude tall oil in the USSR was 95,000 tons in 1974.
REFERENCESKomshilov, N. F. Kanifol’, ee sostav i stroenie smolianykh kislot. Moscow, 1965.
Bogomolov, B. D., and A. A. Sokolova. Pobochnye produkty sul’fatnotselliuloznogo proizvodstva. Moscow, 1962.
P. P. POLIAKOV