Tamga


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Tamga

 

a climatic and pelotherapeutic health resort, in Issyk-Kul’ Oblast, Kirghiz SSR; situated at an elevation of 1,684 m on the southern shore of Lake Issyk-Kul’. Summers are warm, with an average July temperature of 18°C, and winters are mild, with an average January temperature of –4°C. Tamga offers climatotherapy and lake bathing, as well as treatment for digestive and respiratory (nontubercular) disorders and for diseases of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. There is a sanatorium and facilities for hydrotherapy and pelotherapy.


Tamga

 

among Mongols, originally a special emblem or mark with which livestock were branded to denote ownership; later a seal (or its imprint) or a document or charter bearing the khan’s seal. The term became common in the countries conquered by the Mongols in the 13th century. In Middle Asia, certain Trans-caucasian countries, and the Middle East, tamga was the name of a tax imposed by the Mongols on merchants, artisans, and those engaged in promysly (hunters, fishermen, miners, and others engaged in extractive occupations). Such a tribute continued to be paid until the 1570’s (in Iran it was abolished in 1565). In the modern Mongolian language, tamga means “letterhead,” “rubber stamp,” or “ace” (playing card).

In Russia in the 13th to 15th centuries, tamga was a tax levied on commercial transactions. Local merchants, however, paid either no tax at all in their own cities or a tax smaller than what visiting merchants paid. Beginning in the middle of the 16th century, the majority of commercial taxes were gradually replaced by the ruble tax (rublevaia poshlina)—a tax based on the ruble and calculated as a percentage of the price of goods traded.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
13 schoolchildren received the Altyn Tamga certificate, 6 students won prizes at the state olympiad and 2 graduates were awarded the golden certificate in 2018-2019 academic year.
Another 24 students received the Altyn Tamga certificate from the Ministry of Education and Science.
Cyclists will cover 1,705 km distance along Son-Kul, Kol-Suu, Issyk-Kul mountain lakes and the Tamga village on the southern shore of Issyk-Kul, said Tourism Ministry.
Baby Asel Tamga with her mother alongside her father.
The villages of Kazhi-Sai, Bokonbayevo, Tosor, Ton and Tamga felt the tremors of 7 seismic intensity, the town of Balykchy - 4.5, Karakol - 5, Cholpon-Ata - 4.5, and Naryn - 4.
The protesters then marched again on the Tamga substation and, without resistance, switched off the power, as they had done a day earlier.
Von ebenso grosser Symbolik ist das Logo rechts neben dem Titel: eine Moschee erhebt sich uber der Tamga der Krimkhane, womit zum Ausdruck gebracht werden soll, dass die religiose und kulturelle Identitat auf dem Fundament des Nationalbewusstseins ruht.
Chapter 1, on the beginning of "Russian" (rossiiskii) state symbols, contains two articles totaling 68 pages, mostly about the Riurikid "sign" (znak) or insignia now on the State Seal of Ukraine, arguing that what is variously called a trident was the state symbol of steppe origin of the Rus' kaganate that only later became a Riurikid clan symbol or tamga. Its closest analogies are to Khazar and to Volga and Danube Bulgar symbols.