Tammann, Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Tammann, Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon


Born May 28 (June 9), 1861, in Iamburg, now Kingisepp, Leningrad Oblast; died Dec. 17, 1938, in Göttingen. German physical chemist.

Tammann graduated from the University of Dorpat (now Tartu) in 1882 and became a professor there in 1892. He was a professor at Göttingen University from 1903 to 1930.

Tammann established that solutions with the same osmotic pressure have identical vapor pressure. He studied the effect of pressure on polymorphic transitions in single-component systems and discovered the polymorphic modifications of ice. He developed the thesis that various types of glass are supercooled liquids with high viscosity and determined the phase structural diagrams for a number of metallic systems.

Tammann was a foreign corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1912) and an honorary foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1927).


In Russian translation:
Stekloobraznoe sostoianie. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Rukovodstvopo geterogennym ravnovesiiam. Leningrad, 1935.
Metallovedenie: Khimiia i fizika metallov i ikh splavov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.


Riago, N. Ia. “Iz istorii khimicheskogo otdeleniia Tartuskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta.” In Trudy Instituta istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki AN SSSR. Vol. 12: Istoriia khimicheskikh nauk i khimicheskoi tekhnologii. Moscow, 1956.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.