Tannaim


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Tannaim

(tänä`ĭm) [plural of Aramaic tanna,=one who studies or teaches], Jewish sages of the period from HillelHillel,
fl. c.30 B.C.–A.D. 10, Jewish scholar, regarded as the forebear of the later patriarchs who led the Jews of Palestine until c.A.D. 400. The Jerusalem Talmud calls him the president of the Sanhedrin.
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 to the compilation of the MishnaMishna
, in Judaism, codified collection of Oral Law—legal interpretations of portions of the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and other legal material. Together with the Gemara, or Amoraic commentary on the Mishna, it comprises the Talmud.
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. They functioned as both scholars and teachers, educating those in the synagogues as well as in the academies. Their opinions are found either in the Mishna or as collected in the ToseftaTosefta
, plural Toseftoth [Aramaic,=additional], collection of ancient Jewish teachings supplementing the Mishna or Oral Law and closely allied to it in organization. Like the Mishna, it was compiled by the Tannaim.
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. After the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple (A.D. 70), Johanan ben ZakkaiJohanan ben Zakkai
, leader of the Pharisees of Jerusalem before the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70, afterward founder of the Jewish academy at Jamnia. He emphasized the study of the Torah as the primary religious duty for which humankind was created. After A.D.
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 reconstituted the academy at Jabneh (see JamniaJamnia
, biblical Jabneel and Jabneh [Heb.,=God causes to build], ancient city, central Israel. Its modern name is Yavne. A central city of Philistia, the Bible refers to its walls being destroyed by Uzziah. It was pillaged by Judas Maccabaeus and later rebuilt.
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), where the work of the Tannaim flourished. Akiba ben JosephAkiba ben Joseph
, c.A.D. 50–c.A.D. 135, Jewish Palestinian religious leader, one of the founders of rabbinic Judaism. Although the facts of his life are obscured by legend, he is said to have been a poor and illiterate shepherd who began his rabbinic studies at the age of
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 was among their disciples. The final compilation and redaction of the opinions and rulings of the tannaim was carried out c.200 under the administration of Judah ha-NasiJudah ha-Nasi
, c.135–c.220, Palestinian Jewish communal leader (tanna). He occupied the office of patriarch (nasi) which was reestablished by the Romans after 135.
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, and resulted in the Mishna, which is accorded canonical status and forms the basis for all subsequent rabbinic discussions. The Tannaim were succeeded by the AmoraimAmoraim
[Heb. amar=to interpret], in Judaism, term referring to those scholars, predominantly at Caesarea and Tiberias in Palestine (c.A.D. 220–c.A.D. 375) and in Babylonia (c.A.D. 200–c.A.D.
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.

Bibliography

See H. L. Strack, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash (1931, repr. 1969).

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Had we the benefit of the Tannaim, the great compilers of the Mishnah, still ambling in our midst today, you can be sure that rather than a cheerful "I should work out more in 2018" we would've received a new Talmudic tomeTractate Crossfit, perhapsdetailing precisely how many workouts a week are advised, and which blessing must be recited upon munching on a Kind bar.
Analyzing the placement of pedagogical whipping in key sources from the early rabbinic corpus (primarily from the Mishna and Tosefta), the present section will highlight how the earliest rabbis (the tannaim) conceptualized this act as a obligation incumbent upon a teacher requiring a posture of simultaneous compassion and distance.
thesis that the tendency of the Tannaim was to make every effort to vindicate the patriarchs, while the Amoraim frequently allowed themselves to be more critical.
Proselytizing in the First Five Centuries of the Common Era, the Age of Tannaim and Amoraim.
(14) The term halakha was first employed by the early Rabbis (called Tannaim, approximately 10-220 C.E.) to refer to an oral ruling handed down by the religious authorities (as in the phrase halakha leMoshe miSinai, a law given to Moses at Sinai).
Schremer, who argues that the role of Christianity in the formation of early rabbinic Judaism has been overstated, claims that the polemics of second-century Palestinian rabbis (the Tannaim) were principally directed against the Roman Empire.
Thus the Tannaim directed: "One should always sell all one possesses in order to marry the daughter of a scholar." Under no circumstances should one marry "the daughter of the illiterate people of the land." This self-serving demand, since the authors of the Tannaim were, of course, scholars, exemplifies the eugenic aspect of at least a thousand years of the history of the Jews in Europe.
Ribeiro se ha acercado a el centrandose en la doble controversia sobre el sabado de Mt 12,1-14, aproximandose a esta desde las <<obras de misericordia>> como contexto judio (esta cuestion esta reflejada tanto en el texto biblico de los LXX como en diferentes targumim y midrashim de los tannaim) de la misericordia mateana.
He suggests that the Talmudic approach to monarchy contrasts with that found in the Bible, and sets it within the context of the royal rule the tannaim knew first-hand, that of the Roman Empire.
200 C.E., and that is the watershed between the Tannaic and the Amoraic periods, so named after the Tannaim (sages whose teachings appear in the Mishnah) and the Amoraim (sages whose teachings appear in the Talmud but not in the Mishnah).
The ketubah was developed during periods of the Tannaim and Amoraim and, as the rest of the scrolls of this time, was written in Aramaic which was then spoken language.