Tanzimat


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Tanzimat

(tän`zēmät), [Turk.,=reorganization], the name referring to a period of modernizing reforms instituted under the Ottoman EmpireOttoman Empire
, vast state founded in the late 13th cent. by Turkish tribes in Anatolia and ruled by the descendants of Osman I until its dissolution in 1918. Modern Turkey formed only part of the empire, but the terms "Turkey" and "Ottoman Empire" were often used
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 from 1839 to 1876. In 1839, under the rule of Sultan Abd al-MajidAbd al-Majid
or Abdülmecit
, 1823–61, Ottoman sultan (1839–61), son and successor of Mahmud II to the throne of the Ottoman Empire. The rebellion of Muhammad Ali was checked by the intervention (1840–41) of England, Russia, and Austria.
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, the edict entitled Hatti-i Sharif of Gulhane laid out the fundamental principles of Tanzimat reform. Foremost among the laws was the security of honor, life, and property for all Ottoman subjects, regardless of race or religion. Other reforms, which sought to reduce theological dominance, included the lifting of monopolies, fairer taxation, secularized schools, a changed judicial system, and new rules regarding military service. Tanzimat ended (1876) under Abd al-Hamid IIAbd al-Hamid II,
1842–1918, Ottoman sultan (1876–1909). His uncle, Abd al-Aziz, was deposed from the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) in 1876 by the Young Turks, a liberal reformist group.
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's reign, when the ideas for a Turkish constitution and parliament promoted by the vizier Midhat PashaMidhat Pasha
, 1822–83, Turkish politician. As governor of Bulgaria he succeeded within the few years of his tenure (1864–69) in raising the country from misery to relative prosperity. Schools, roads, and granaries were built from funds obtained by local taxation.
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 were rejected by the sultan.

Tanzimat

 

the name by which the reforms in the Ottoman Empire in the period from 1839 to the early 1870’s are known; in addition, the name by which the period itself is known.

The Tanzimat stemmed from several factors. Ottoman feudal society was in the midst of crisis. In the first third of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had experienced a number of social and economic shifts. The oppressed peoples of southeastern Europe were intensifying their struggle for national liberation. The European powers were engaged in a growing rivalry in the Balkans and the Near East. Finally, the Ottoman Empire was threatened by further collapse from within.

The Hatt-i Şerif (“illustrious rescript”), the sultan’s edict proclaimed in the palace gardens of Gülhane on Nov. 3, 1839, marked the beginning of the first stage of the Tanzimat. The reform program of Gülhane, drawn up by Reşid Paşa (Reshid Pasha), the minister of foreign affairs, inspired a series of measures, including penal and commercial codes, laws on the abolition of the farming of taxes (the ushar), and a law on the founding of secular schools. The result was, in part, better administration and government, an improved judicial system, and the growth of secular education. Nevertheless, resistance on the part of the feudal reaction prevented the consistent and thoroughgoing implementation of the most essential promise made in the Giilhane edict—namely, guarantee of the security of life, honor, and property of all the sultan’s subjects. Reaction also hindered the implementation of some other reforms.

The Hatt-i Hümayun (“imperial rescript”), the sultan’s edict of Feb. 18, 1856, adopted under the presssure of the Western powers, which were at the time meeting at the peace conference in Paris, marked the beginning of the second stage of the Tanzimat. The reforms introduced in 1856 and thereafter represented a continuation of the Giilhane reforms. At the same time, they provided for innovations, which met primarily the interests of foreign capital and the non-Turkish comprador bourgeoisie. Foreigners received a series of privileges, including the right to own land, the right to establish foreign banks, and concessions for railroad construction, mining operations, and port and municipal facilities.

The Tanzimat as a whole contributed to a certain acceleration of Turkey’s economic development, to the growth of the Turkish national bourgeoisie, to the opening of a path for the bourgeois development of Turkey, to the growth of science and literature, and to the formation of a Turkish intelligentsia.

REFERENCES

Novichev, A. D. Istoriia Turtsii, vol. 3. Leningrad, 1973. Pages 81–198.
Shabanov, F. Sh. Gosudarstvennyi stroi i pravovaia sistema Turtsii v period tanzimata. Baku, 1967.
Engelhardt, E. La Turquie et le Tanzimat. Paris, 1882.
Tanzimat. Istanbul, 1940.
Kaynar, R. Mustafa Reşit paşa ve Tanzimat. Ankara, 1954.
Davison, R. H. Reform in the Ottoman Empire, 1856–1876. Princeton, N.J., 1963.
Sertoğlu, M. Türkiyede yenileşmenin tarihçesi ve Tanzimat devrim. Istanbul, 1973.

A. D. NOVICHEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Moreover, work on a comprehensive program of integration of contemporary and religious studies in Madaris has been initiated in consultation with Ministry of Education and Ittihad Tanzimat e Madaris
In 1839 Tanzimat also known as Gulhane Hatti Humayun, was the first-time religious freedom regardless of any religious group was mentioned, and in 1859 (Islahat Fermam) The Imperial Reform Edict accepted religious freedom as a rule.
2) Turkish drama after the period of Tanzimat (Karaburgu 312).
Among the topics are some remarks on Turkish prose before the Tanzimat Period, Halet Efendi's second audience with Napoleon, two Turkish Bible manuscripts in Leiden as Middle-Ottoman linguistic monuments, a 16th-century Turkish apology for Islam: the Gurbetname-i Sultan Cem, and female participation in earlier Islamic mysticism from the ninth to the 16th century.
When the liberal Tanzimat were passed in the 1800s, the millet system was abolished, in favor of a more European-style secularist government.
yuzyilin sonuna kadar devamlilik arz etti, kadinlarin durumundaki belirgin degisiklik, Osmanli modernlesmesinin bir sonucu olarak Tanzimat ile birlikte basladi.
In 1839, with the proclamation of Tanzimat Fermani (The Rescript of Gulhane), Ottoman Empire gave way to "the modernization of the Ottoman conception of government based in part on concepts borrowed from abroad" (Hanioglu, A Brief History 73).
The second most profound change in Ottoman-Kurdish relations came with the Tanzimat (Reform) Period from 1839 to 1876.
Questioning the perceived rupture between Ottoman and Turkish political culture, Gurpinar argues that the roots of Turkish nationalism and accompanying Turkish ideas about modernity initially occurred not during the rule of the Young Turks (the precursor to the modern Turkish state) but instead during the Ottoman ancien regime, the period of Tanzimat (a period of reform and reorganization between 1839 and 1876), and the Hamidian regime that followed it.
Ankara valiligi yatirim izleme ve koordinasyon baskanligi tanzimat caddesi no:67 varlik mahallesi yeni mahalle
Con vision revisionista no menos complaciente, los coordinadores, Palacios y Pani, y en pos de ellos Bender, han dicho antes que gracias a las reformas Tanzimat (1839-1876) el imperio otomano empezo a asomar como estado-nacion.
4) Halil Inalcik, Tanzimat ve Bulgar Meselesi (Tanzimat and the Bulgarian Question) (Istanbul: Eren, 1943).