taproot

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taproot

the large single root of plants such as the dandelion, which grows vertically downwards and bears smaller lateral roots
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

taproot

[′tap‚rüt]
(botany)
A root system in which the primary root forms a dominant central axis that penetrates vertically and rather deeply into the soil; it is generally larger in diameter than its branches.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Taproot

The first major upgrade to Bitcoin since SegWit in 2017. Launched November 16, 2021, Taproot is a Bitcoin soft fork that improves privacy and efficiency. It also improves privacy for Layer 2 Bitcoin chains (see Lightning Network). Taproot enhances Bitcoin scripting, which takes it one step closer to providing more versatile smart contracts in the future (see Bitcoin smart contract).

Schnorr Signatures (BIP-340)
Taproot uses the Schnorr algorithm, which combines multiple digital signatures into one, thus hiding their identities and creating a more private transaction. Multiple unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs), which are the records of spendable Bitcoins for each coin owner, are merged into a single, smaller transaction.

When Bitcoin was launched in 2009, the Schnorr signature was protected by patents, and thus the ECDSA digital signature algorithm was used exclusively until Taproot. See ECDSA and Bitcoin transaction.

Pay-to-Taproot (BIP-341)
New Pay-to-Taproot (P2TR) spending rules are more private because complex multi-signature transactions appear the same as simple transactions with one signature. Merkelized Alternative Script Trees (MAST) enables locking UTXO outputs to multiple scripts that are compressed via hashes in a tree hierarchy (Merkle tree).

Tapscript (BIP-342)
Tapscript provides new op codes for Bitcoin transaction scripts that implement Pay-to-Taproot (P2TR). Tapscript scripts verify Taproot spending and Schnorr signatures. See Bitcoin.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The founding food hubs plan to soon jointly market products under the "Tap Root Cooperative" unified brand.
([section]) LRN, lateral root number; RL, root length; SDW, shoot dry weight; SDWR, shoot dry weight reduction; TRDW, total root dry weight; W/L, root weight per unit length of tap root. Table 2.
After you start getting your first roots for eating, you can take side shoots from the main tap root for new plantings.
When Zobel crossed a mutant tomato plant that had no lateral roots with one that had no adventitious roots, he should have gotten an offspring with only a tap root, according to the conventional wisdom that said only those three types of roots existed.
A: We don't have a list of trees with a tap root because most neither develop one nor need one unless they are on a dry site where the roots must go very deep to find water.
Tap root elongation in the subsurface solution compartment followed a curvilinear trend, but there were no significant differences (P [is less than] 0.05) in genotypic response to pH and Al treatments (data not shown).
Due to a deep tap root, often three feet or more in length, it withstands droughts better than most lawn grasses and also brings up minerals from the subsoil.
It can also be tough getting the weed's entire tap root out.
Its black tap root is a source of red dye, sometimes added to henna.