Taraxacum


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

Taraxacum

 

a genus of perennial plants of the family Com-positae. The plants contain a milky juice. The leaves form a basal rosette and may be pinnatifid or entire. The flowers, which are bisexual and ligulate, grow in separate heads located at the tips of leafless, hollow flower stalks. The fruit is an achene with a beak and a pappus made of numerous white hairs. Many species are marked by apomixis.

There are 70 “major,” or “collective,” species or more than 1,000 “minor” species of Taraxacum. They are distributed in the cold and temperate zones. In the USSR there are about 200 species. The most widespread species is the common dandelion (T. officinale), which includes hundreds of apomixic forms. The common dandelion grows near dwellings; in pastures, and along roads, forest edges, and rivers. It grows as a weed on lawns and in gardens and meadows. The plant is eaten by livestock. The young leaves are edible, and the roots may be roasted to make an ersatz coffee. The dried roots are used as bitters to stimulate appetite, as a laxative, and as a cholagogue. A thick dandelion root extract is used in the production of pills. Certain species, such as the kok-saghyz (T. kok-saghyz), contain rubber in their roots.

REFERENCES

Flora SSSR, vol. 29. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964.
Atlas lekarstvennykh rastenii SSSR. Moscow, 1962.

T. V. EGOROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Taraxacum kok-saghyz known as kok-saghyz or "Russian dandelion" is an efficient rubber producer with the same qualities as Hevea brasiliensis (Lobanov, 1951).
After being cultured for 24 h, triplicate wells were treated with different concentrations of the taraxacum extract.
Riazuddin, "Therapeutic potential of Taraxacum officinale against HCV NS5B polymerase: In-vitro and In silico study," Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol.
Capsella pursa-pastoris, Convolvolus arvensis, Dactylis glomerata, Elymus repens, Plantago major agg., Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare agg., Taraxacum officinale agg., and Urtica dioica.
En el cuadro 1 se presentan las concentraciones promedios de los metabolitos secundarios determinados en los extractos de las plantas medicinales Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper carpunya y Taraxacum officinale.
Keywords: Taraxacum sp.; Apomixis; MSI1; Gene cloning; Endosperm development; Sequence analysis
Instead of using rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis, for those of a botanical bent), the Continental team, working with personnel from the Fraunhofer Institute, are sourcing the latex from a Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz) to make tires.
Boldocynara[R], a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder.
Por su parte, la polinizacion de algunos cultivos por las abejas, como en los arboles frutales, puede menguar a causa de la preferencia de esos insectos por la oferta de polen y nectar de algunas malezas, sobre todo Taraxacum officinale F.H.
Grass samples, Chamaemelum nobile, Trachyspermum copticum, Descurania Sophia, Urtica dioica, Falcaria vulgaris, Tragopogon collinus, Gundelia tournefortii and Taraxacum officinale were collected at mid-vegetative stage from natural pastures in Kermanshah province.
La composicion vegetal del entorno de la trampa fue un vergel de plantas de frutales: Annona cherimola, Ficus carica, Pyrus malus, Inga feuillei, Perse americana, Eriobotrya japonica, Vitis vinifera; tambien destacan cultivos de pequenas parcelas agricolas de Zea mays y Phaseolus lunatus, asi como de plantas silvestres: gramalote (Panicum purpurasces), amor seco (Bidens pilosa), diente de leon (Taraxacum officinale), yuyo hembra (Amaranthus sp.) y Crotalaria sp., entre las mas frecuentes.
Rich in vitamins A and C, iron, potassium and zinc, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) was used by Native Americans as a folk remedy for upset stomach, and liver, kidney and skin diseases.