Targum

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Targum

(tär`gəm) [Aramaic,=translation], Aramaic paraphrase of the Hebrew Bible. When Aramaic replaced the Hebrew tongue among the Jews of Palestine and Babylon, interpreters were called to translate and explain the scriptural passages that were read aloud during synagogue services. The oral Aramaic paraphrases were, in the course of time, put down in writing under the name Targum. One of the best-known Targums extant is the Targum Onkelos (see OnkelosOnkelos
, 2d cent. A.D., translator of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, his work later being given the title Targum Onkelos (see Targum). A proselyte, he gained the respect of the leading Hebrew scholars of his day.
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). The Targum is printed in the margin of corresponding parts of the Bible. A complete manuscript of a Palestinian Targum, the first of its kind, was found in 1956.
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References in periodicals archive ?
world across cultural lines: Tanakh, the Targumim, Septuagint and
This first volume presents the work of commentators Chazal, Targumim, Zohar, R.
See A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (New York: Judaica Press, 1996), 321.
Fifteen chapters by a renowned team of scholars examine inner-biblical exegesis in the Tanak, translation as interpretation in the Septuagint and the Targumim, and the exegetical approach of Philo of Alexandria, the Dead Sea Scrolls, Rabbinic Midrash, Jewish Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, the New Testament, and subsequent Christian literature through the closing of the canon.
The work begins with inner-biblical exegesis in the Tanak; subsequent chapters explore scriptural interpretations in the Dead Sea scrolls, Targumim, Jewish Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, as well as the writings of Philo and the rabbis.
98-100), recalling the interdict (taboo) which affected writing, principally concerning the oral Law, the Aggadah, the targumim (Aramaic paraphrases of the Bible), or even the liturgy, as evidenced by a large number of Talmudic texts: `Whoever commits the halakot to writing is comparable to the man who throws the Torah into the flames' (Temurah 14b, Gittin 60b); `Those who set in writing the Aggadah, "the Jewish legend", have no part in the future world' (Talmud of Jerusalem, Shabbat XVI, 1) and so on.
Le Deaut gives, as one would expect, a quite excellent treatment of |the Targumim' (ch.
Tambien empleo estas tecnicas la exegesis primitiva, tanto la judia (con los pesharim de Qumran, en los que se interpretan y actualizan para la mentalidad de la comunidad ciertos pasajes de libros profeticos y de los Salmos; los midrashim y los targumim, con sus procedimientos de generacion de sentido, como la alusion--remez--y otros (45); o, incluso, los meshalim rabinicos, con su hiddush o actualizacion, literalmente <<renovacion>> (46)), como la cristiana (con la lectura tipologica y alegorica de los Padres de la Iglesia) (47).
I (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1947), 179-81, and the Targumim ad loc.
The papers in English discuss retelling the story of Esther in Targum Sheni in light of Septuagint traditions--main outlines, God as father in the Pentateuchal Targumim: the case of Abraham's garden at Be'er Sheba, and the lost tomb of Moses revisited: Targum pseudo-Jonathan on Deuteronomy 34:5-6.
Apart from the general introduction to the series, each volume has the Torah text in Hebrew, the Targum in Aramaic, an English translation of the Targum, a page-by-page commentary, an appendix with additional notes, a section of Onkelos highlights and discussion points, and the Hebrew text of the haftarot with a translation of their Aramaic Targumim. The English is elegant and it is delightful to come across a Torah work that is not written in "yeshivish." The font, layout and binding are attractive, and the books are a pleasure to handle.
mainly as an author of the first English Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature.