duty

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duty,

in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Duty

 

a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.

O. G. DROBNITSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.

duty

1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
It has been suggested to us that the purpose of the Confederate Constitution's tariff clause was to establish a uniform, ad valorem tariff rate for all imports, thereby blunting rent-seeking incentives.
The union applies the 11 percent tariff rate and the non-union country (country 2) the 10 percent tariff rate.
It was earlier reported that PAMPI was questioning the Bureau of Customs' move to impose a 40 percent tariff on chicken MDM as the group said an EO would be needed for the change in the tariff rate to be in effect.
A: Tariff rate adjustments are carried out every six months based on the actual cost of generating electricity.
The stronger DSCR in comparison to expectations is attributed to the two tariff rate increases of 3% and 17% that took place in fiscal 2017 in addition to lower than expected expenses, which were 13.7% below the forecast.
In 2007, Shenhua Group of China abandoned the $1.5 billion coal-based power project in Thar coal-field due to disagreement on power tariff rates. Chinese Shenhua Group quit the project because the government of former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz had backed out of already decided tariff rates of 5.67 cent per unit with the group and demanded a rate of 5.39 cent per unit.
On the other hand, if these three countries were to import from China utilizing ACFTA, the average tariff rate rises to around 1.2%.
If a company deposited less than its new tariff rate on carbons imported during the period of review, it will be required to pay additional duties, while if it deposited more than the new rate it will receive a refund.
The government now faces having to go back to the drawing board in order to put in place a new consultation process to find a feed-in tariff rate for domestic solar PV schemes more acceptable to the industry.
Import duties of 12 per tonne will be suspended for all medium and low quality soft wheat, for which there is an erga omnes' [open to all] annual tariff rate quota of 2,989,240 tonnes.
The US adoption of the tariff rate quota system made it necessary that the exporting countries adopt an export certificate system, in order to qualify the exporters for `in-quota' (low tariff) exports to the US market.