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in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.


Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.


1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Under EO 23, the tariff rates on agricultural products including chicken MDM must be brought back to its previous levels once the QR is removed.
After concluding its investigation and preparation of a feasibility report, the group was all set to construct the proposed power plants, but the crucial issue of tariff rate on power generation halted the project.
Although majority of the products imported into Pakistan face less than 10% tariff rates, a large percentage of the tariff lines report rates between 15% and 25%.
TLH recommends reduction in the level and dispersion of import tariff rates, the removal of import quotas, licences and other quantitative restrictions, the removal of export taxes and subsidies and the devaluation of national currency so as to compensate for the removal of protection or remedy overvaluation (Shafaeddin, 2010).
The previous tariff rates were Dhs2 for one hour, Dhs5 for two hours, Dhs8 for three hours and Dhs11 for four hours.
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In a statement issued here today, the Ministry of Water and Electricity said that the new tariff rates come as part of a broad package of governmental reforms that have been announced in the kingdom's budget statement.
In the last couple of years, mobile companies have increased their tariff rates in about a fortnight or month after change in rates of their competitors.
Summary: DUBAI - Maritime World on Wednesday announced the reduction of tariff rates along all aspects of the business at Dubai Maritime City and Jadaf from January 2013.
Since then, however, many have disappeared as the Government reined back the tariff rates by more than half.
Since January 1, 2011 the said 18 items, including garoupa fish, tea, green turtle eggs, and oncidium (the so-called dancing-doll orchid or butterfly orchid), have seen tariff rates on shipments to China reduced gradually, with the tariff rates on 16 items already cut to zero..
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