Tarim

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Tarim

(dārēm`), Mandarin Dayan, chief river of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, NW China, c.1,300 mi (2,090 km) long, formed by the union of the Aksu and the Yarkant rivers at the western end of the Taklimakan desert, and flowing generally east, along the northern edge of the desert, to Lop NurLop Nur
, salt basin, SE Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, in the Tarim River basin. Since 1964, Lop Nur has been used by the China for its nuclear test explosions.
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, a largely dried-up salt lake. KashiKashi
or Kashgar
, city (1994 est. pop. 190,500), SW Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, on the Kaxgar (Kashgar) River (a tributary of the Tarim). It is the hub of an important commercial district, the western terminus of the main road of the province, and a
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 (Kashgar) is the region's largest city. The river, which is silt-laden, gives its name to the arid Tarim basin, a great depression, c.800 mi (1,290 km) long and 400 mi (640 km) wide, surrounded by the lofty Tian Shan, Kunlun, and Pamir mountains; the Taklimakan occupies most of the basin. Over 50% of Xinjiang's population live in the basin's oases. China's nuclear-testing center is located at the eastern end of the Tarim basin, near Lop Nur. Archaelogical excavations at ancient sites in the region dating from 2,000 to 4,000 years old have revealed the mummified remains of people with Caucasian features. DNA research indicates that these early inhabitants may be of mixed European and Siberian descent, and linguists have speculated that they spoke Tokharian, an extinct Indo-European language known from surviving inscriptions. The important Silk Road between China and Europe passed through the basin.

Tarim

 

(or Tarim Darya), a river in western China; part of its basin is in the USSR. Measuring 2,030 km in length, the Tarim is the longest river in Central Asia; it drains an area of 951,500 sq km, including the basins of the lakes Lop Nor and Kara Buran Kol. The main arm of the Tarim is the Yarkand River, which rises in the Karakoram Range and is called the Raskem Darya in its upper course. The Tarim flows mainly along the western and northern edge of the Takla-Makan Desert, where the stream becomes dispersed.

In some years, the waters of the Tarim reach as far as the solonchak east of Kara Buran Kol. The river acquires the name “Tarim” after the confluence of the Yarkand with two other arms, the Aksu and Khotan. The Aksu accounts for 70–80 percent of the total discharge into the Tarim; the Yarkand and Khotan dry up in some years. In its middle and lower course, the Tarim divides into numerous branches, forming a chaotic maze of riverbeds and small lakes within a strip up to 80 km wide, where the location of the main channels changes frequently. In its lower course, the Tarim passes near the Konche Darya, with which it is linked by intermittent streams. In years when most of the Tarim’s water flows into the channel of the Konche Darya, the water level of Lop Nor rises considerably. In years when the flow is reversed, the water level of Kara Buren Kol rises and that of Lop Nor drops significantly; sometimes Lop Nor dries up completely. In the past, the Kashgar, Tiznaf, and Keriya rivers flowed into the Tarim; they are now entirely used for irrigation or are lost in the sands.

The Tarim is fed by snow and rain and, in its upper course, by glacial runoff. High water lasts from May through September. The maximum flow rate in the middle course near the city of Aral exceeds 2,500 cu m per sec. The annual drainage at the river’s emergence from the mountains is about 29 cu km; in the lower course it varies between 4 and 8 cu km. The river freezes in winter.

The Tarim is rich in fishes, including Old World minnows (genus Schizothorax), the osman (genus Diptychus), and the loach Nemachilus barbatulo. In the lower course there are reed thickets, which are nesting places for water birds. The rivers in the Tarim River basin are widely used for irrigation, particularly in the Yarkand, Kashgar, and Aksu oases.

N. T. KUZNETSOV

Tarim

a river in NW China, in Xinjiang Uygur AR: flows east along the N edge of the Taklimakan Shama desert, dividing repeatedly and forming lakes among the dunes, finally disappearing in the Lop Nor depression; the chief river of Xinjiang Uygur AR; drains the great Tarim Basin between the Tian Shan and Kunlun mountain systems of central Asia, an area of about 906 500 sq. km (350 000 sq. miles). Length: 2190 km (1360 miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
In Tarim River system of south Xinjiang, it can be only found in upper and middle reaches of Kaidu River (Guo et al., 2012).
Zhang, "Glacier runoff variation and its influence on river runoff during 1961-2006 in the Tarim River Basin, China," Science China Earth Sciences, vol.
[6.] Nile Z, Wu H, Wei J, Zhang X, Ma Z (2013) Length-weight relationship and morphological studies in the Kashgarian loach riplophysa yarkandensis (Day, 1877) from the Tarim River, Tarim River Basin, North-West China.
Desiccation of the Tarim River, Xinjiang, China, and mitigation strategy.
In order to radically improve the ecological environment in the Tarim river basin there are used in conjunction: engineering work for emergency hydraulic transfer into the main stream, (9) ecological salvage engineering, (10) ecological migration engineering which is still in progress in the Tarim basin, dam-building engineering, engineering work to return agricultural land to forest (or grassland), (11) sand-stabilizing engineering work, engineering work to protect natural forests, engineering work to improve and extend retaining banks, irrigation systems engineering (construction, etc.).
Excessive upstream dam building and water withdrawals for agriculture have dried up the Tarim River. As a result, large poplar groves and other vegetation that once served as a barrier between the Taklamakan and Kumtag Deserts have died off.
(2017) investigated the terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs) in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) and analyzed the related factors of water variations in the mountain areas based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data with in situ river discharge and gauge observations during the period of 2002-2015.
Both parties agree to expand strategic cooperation on upgrading nursery greenhouse, establishing a large-scale, mechanised, intelligent modern apocynum base as well as deepen related follow-up cooperation, such as building a National Apocynum Park along the 300 kilometer long Tarim River.
The study area of this paper is very special, located in the southern edge of the Tarim River Basin, and although the three meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) are located in the arid area of northwest, their locations are very close to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, as given in Figure 1.
[9] applied the AA model to the Tarim River to estimate actual evapotranspiration and verified the complementary correlation theory, which proved that the calculation results of the AA model in this area are reasonable and credible.
(2015) reported that evapotranspiration controlled by vegetation phenological characteristics was mainly partitioned to plant transpiration and that groundwater was the main water source as well as the key factor controlling the water cycle process of the desert riparian forest in the lower Tarim River Basin [18].
The largest and longest inland river in China, named Tarim River, is located in the TRB, with an area of 1.029 x [10.sup.6] [km.sup.2], ranging from 73[degrees]E to 97[degrees]E and from 34[degrees]N to 45[degrees]N, including high mountains and low plain regions (Figure 1) [33].