Tarquin

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Tarquin

(tär`kwĭn) [Etruscan,=lord], in Roman tradition, an Etruscan family that ruled Rome. According to the historian Livy, when the rule of the Bacchiadae in Corinth was overthrown (c.657 B.C.) by the tyrant Cypselus, Demaratus, a Corinthian noble, migrated to Tarquinii, Etruria, where he married into one of the leading Etruscan families and had two sons, Aruns and Lucumo. Lucumo married Tanaquil, a daughter of the Etruscan aristocracy and a prophetess of high repute. At her urging he went to Rome, became a citizen, and took the name Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. He rose to high position, and on the death of Ancus MartiusAncus Martius
, fourth king of ancient Rome (640?–616? B.C.). This semilegendary king is supposed to have enlarged the area of Rome.
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 (c.616 B.C.) he either seized the Roman throne or was elected to it by a coalition of Etruscan families. Priscus fought successfully against the Sabines and subjugated all Latium to Rome. He is credited with the building of the first Circus Maximus and the Forum. During his reign Etruscan influences appeared in Roman politics, religion, and art. After a reign of 38 years he was assassinated by the sons of Ancus Martius, who were involved in a patrician plot attempting to limit the kingship to a religious role only. Through the influence of Priscus' wife, Tanaquil, the plot was halted and the kingship passed to Servius Tullius, Priscus' son-in-law. After a reign of 44 years, Tullius was murdered by Priscus' son Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud), who thereupon seized the throne. Under his rule Etruscan influence was at its height, and the power of the monarchy was absolute. Despised by the people for his tyranny, he sought to win favor by successful wars but was deposed (510 B.C.) by the senate. The romantic reason traditionally given for the deposition of Tarquin was the rape of Lucretia (see LucreceLucrece
or Lucretia
, in Roman legend, Roman matron, illustrious for her virtue. She was the victim of rape by Sextus, son of Tarquinius Superbus. Having enjoined her husband, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, and his friends to avenge her, she stabbed herself to death.
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) by his son Sextus Tarquinius. After the subsequent suicide of Lucretia, her husband, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, and the Brutus family (to which Lucretia belonged) raised a rebellion. Lucius Junius Brutus and Collatinus were elected consuls, and Tarquin fled north and appealed to Etruria to restore him to his throne. An army under Lars PorsenaLars Porsena
or Lars Porsenna
, semilegendary king of Clusium (modern Chiusi) in Etruria, who marched against Rome to reinstate the exiled Tarquinius Priscus. It was said that the heroism of such Romans as Horatius and Scaevola moved him to grant honorable terms of
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 marched against the Romans, and Rome (contrary to Roman historical accounts) was forced to surrender and to yield a large amount of territory. The two sons of Lucius Junius Brutus (see under BrutusBrutus
, in ancient Rome, a surname of the Junian gens. Lucius Junius Brutus, fl. 510 B.C., was the founder of the Roman republic. He feigned idiocy to escape death at the hands of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (see under Tarquin).
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), in opposition to the policy of their father, headed a conspiracy within Rome to restore Tarquin, but it failed. Porsena did not restore the Tarquin monarchy, and, although Rome was seriously weakened, Etruscan supremacy there was at an end. While scholars have tended to reject the entire Tarquin legend, some have recently begun to accept a tentative and modified account of the story. The history of the Tarquins was probably distorted by anti-Etruscan propaganda among the Romans, who resented the Etruscan overlords dominant in Rome from the 8th to the 6th cent. B.C.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Similar to Tarquinius' glimpse of Lucretia and his undoing of her, so Tereus treats Philomela, who was supposedly under his protection.
Yet, the relationship between the artist and the privilege system represents a complex binary implicit within the interrelation of Tarquinius and Lucretia's licence and privilegio.
R Mania 164 36 420 TARQUINIUS (27) (B,T) G Elliott 10 10-2 ................................................................................................................K Renwick 150 37 U40 ANY CURRENCY (23) (E,T) M Keighley 10 10-0 ......................................................................................................
Washington, Feb 27 (ANI): Reports indicate that the residence of the notorious Sextus Tarquinius, the prince who sparked the revolt that led to the foundation of the Roman Republic, may have been found in a volcanic crater.
Use it to compare the power held by monarchs such as Elizabeth I or Tarquinius Superbus (534-510BC) in past times with that held by Elizabeth II or King George of Tonga.
For example, when Lady Knowell finds Sir Credulous alone after she had just left him with her daughter, he complains that Lucretia has made a very "Tarquinius Sextus" of him, and, "like an ungratefull illiterate Woman as she is," she abandoned him before he could present his speech, which, he claims, would have been "the very Nosegay of Eloquence" (4.1.20-25).
It presented a chamber version--2 violins, viola, 2 cellos, double bass and harpsichord (or organ)--of works by the lesser known Baroque composers Johann Rosenmuller and Tarquinius Merula and a mass by Adam Michna of Otradovice.
(50) 'Brutus, while the others were absorbed in grief, drew out the knife from Lucretia's wound, and holding it up [prae se tenens], dripping with gore, exclaimed, 'By this blood, most chaste until a prince wronged it, I swear, and I take you, gods, to witness that I will pursue Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and his wicked wife and all his children, with sword, with fire, aye with whatsoever violence I may; and that I will suffer neither them nor any other to be king in Rome!' Livy, I.LIX.1-26.
Sesto is either or both a younger son of Pompey the Great, or--'meno bene' for Bosco and Reggio--Sextus Tarquinius, who raped his cousin's wife, Lucretia.
Christopher Alden's updated production did little to enliven the proceedings, though the cast (notably Nathan Gunn as Tarquinius, Michelle DeYoung as Lucretia, and William Burden and Christine Goerke as the Male and Female Chorus) gave splendid performances.
Sextus Tarquinius threatens to stain Lucretia's "fama" by staging a spectacle of her adultery, and Boccaccio's Ricciardo thre atens the virtuous Catella "that her honor and good name will be ruined" if she cries out against him for help: both women capitulate to the threats.