a city and administrative center of Tashauz Oblast, Turkmen SSR. Located in the northern part of the republic, in the Tashauz Oasis, not far from the Amu Darya, a source of water for the Shavat Canal, which passes through the city. Railroad station on the Chardzhou-Kungrad-Makat line. Population, 78,000 (1975; 4,000 in 1926, 15,000 in 1939, 38,000 in 1959, 63,000 in 1970).
Tashauz was founded in the early 19th century as a Khivan fortress on the Turkmen border. In 1873, as part of the Khiva Khanate, it became a protectorate of the Russian Empire. It was the center of the Tashkent Beylic. In 1920 it became part of the Khorezm People’s Soviet Republic. It became a city and administrative center of Turkmen Oblast in 1924. In October 1924 it became part of the Turkmen SSR, in 1925 it became the administrative center of Tashauz Okrug, and from 1939 to 1963 it was the oblast center, a status to which it was restored in 1970.
Under Soviet power a number of enterprises have been built and completely modernized in Tashauz. The most important enterprises are a cotton-ginning plant, an oil mill, a brewery, a milk plant, a plant for the repair of farm equipment, a meat-packing plant, a bread-products combine, a plant for the production of building materials, and an experimental plant for the production of reinforced-concrete items. Other major enterprises include carpet-making and garment factories and a confectionery. Among the educational and cultural institutions in Tashauz are an agricultural technicum, medical and pedagogical schools, and a music and drama theater.
Many trees and gardens have been planted in Tashauz, and the city is crisscrossed by numerous aryklar (irrigation canals). The Shavat Canal divides the city into north and south sections.