(full name, G. Kamal Tatar Theater), the leading drama theater in the Tatar ASSR. The theater’s history began in 1906, although its actual founding dates from 1920, when a number of Tatar drama groups, among them the Saiiar, Nur, Shirkat, and Ang companies, merged to form the First Tatar State Performing Company, later renamed the Tatar Theater. The original company included N. Sakaev, N. A. Tazhdarova, G. M. Bolgarskaia, K. Sh. Shamir, B. Tarkhanov, M. Mutin, M. Sh. Absaliamov, N. Arapova, Z. G. Sultanov, G. Ural’skii, Kh. I. Urazikov, and the directors K. Tinchurin and Sh. G. Shamil’skii.
From the beginning, the theater’s repertoire consisted of the best works of Tatar authors, Russian and world classics, and plays by contemporary Soviet and foreign playwrights. The theater has given memorable performances of Isanbet’s Emigration (1925), Khuzha Nasretdin (1940), Mar’iam (1943), Musa Dzhalil’ (1958), Gul’zhamal (1963), and Mirkai and Aislu (1966), Tinchurin’s The American (1925 and 1969), The Light Blue Shawl (1925, 1956, and 1970), Without Sails (1926 and 1958), and Dying Stars (1924 and 1971), Lavrenev’s The Breakup (1928), The Uprising (1929, based on Furmanov’s novel), Ishmurat’s Glorious Epoch (1930), and Gizzat’s The Torrents (1937) and The Sparks (1936 and 1967). Other outstanding productions have included Gorky’s Enemies (1936 and 1963), Simonov’s Russian People (1942), G. Kamal’s Bankrupt (1933, 1944, and 1962) and The Unfortunate Youth (1954), Amir’s Minnikamal (1944), Shakespeare’s King Lear (1944), Pogodin’s Man With a Gun (1947) and Third Pathétique (1970), Aitmatov’s My Little Poplar in the Red Scarf (1965), Dzhabarly’s Aidyn (1969), Khusainov’s Mama Has Come (1970), Fattakh’s Kul Ali (1974), and Minullin’s Bakhtiiar Kankaev (1975). In 1926 the theater was given the title of Academic, and in 1939 it was named after the playwright G. Kamal. In 1956 the company was awarded the Order of Lenin.
Among the prominent theatrical figures who have worked at the theater are People’s Artist of the USSR Kh. G. Abzhalilov, People’s Artists of the RSFSR G. F. Bulatova, F. S. Il’skaia, and Kamal III, Honored Artists of the RSFSR Z. G. Sultanov, G. I. Kamskaia, F. Kh. Kamalova, and Kh. I. Urazikov, and People’s Artist of the Tatar ASSR Kh. Iu. Salimzhanov. In 1975 the company’s leading performers were People’s Artist of the USSR F. I. Khalitov, People’s Artists of the RSFSR Sh. Kh. Biktimirov and G. R. Shamukov, Honored Artists of the RSFSR R. A. Zigan-shina and G. V. Ibragimova, People’s Artists of the Tatar ASSR D. G. Il’iasov, G. I. Nadriukov, R. A. Tazetdinov, V. E. Minkina, I. A. Sultanov, and R. K. Khairetdinova, and Honored Artists of the Tatar ASSR N. I. Dunaev, G. S. Isangulova, G. N. Nigmatullina, N. Kh. Gareeva, and A. Sh. Shakirov. Since 1963, Honored Art Worker of the RSFSR M. Kh. Salimzhanov has been the theater’s chief director. In 1954, People’s Artist of the Tatar ASSR M. G. Sutiushev was appointed chief stage designer.
REFERENCESIstoriia sovetskogo dramaticheskogo teatra, vols. 1–6. Moscow, 1966–71.
Tatarskii sovetskii dramaticheskii teatr. Kazan, 1975.
I. I. ILIALOVA