Tatarstan


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Tatarstan

(tăt'ərstăn`, –stän`),

Tatar Republic

(tä`tər, tətär`), or

Tataria

(tətär`ēə), republic (1990 est. pop. 3,660,000), 26,255 sq mi (68,000 sq km), E European Russia, in the middle Volga and lower Kama river valleys. KazanKazan
, city (1989 est. pop. 1,094,000), capital of Tatarstan, E European Russia, on the Volga. It is a major historic, cultural, industrial, and commercial center. Manufactures include chemicals, explosives, electrical equipment, building materials, consumer goods, and furs.
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 is the capital; other important cities are Almetevsk, Leninogorsk, and Bugulma. The low, rolling plain that makes up most of the republic's territory yields fodder crops, wheat and other cereals, sugar beets, sunflowers, and flax. The republic is a leading Russian oil and natural-gas producer and the starting point for a pipeline to Eastern Europe. There are also important deposits of brown coal, limestone, gypsum, dolomite, and marl. Lumbering and food, leather, oil refining, and fur processing are major Tatar industries. Manufactures include machinery, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The Volga, Kama, Belaya, and Vyatka rivers are important for both transportation and irrigation. There are several hydroelectric stations.

Turko-Tatars make up around 50% of the population, and most live in rural areas. Russians, generally urban, constitute some 40%, and there are Chuvash, Udmurt, Mari, and Mordovian minorities. Sunni Islam is the chief religion.

BulgarsBulgars, Eastern
, Turkic-speaking people, who possessed a powerful state (10th–14th cent.) at the confluence of the Volga and the Kama, E European Russia. The Bulgars appeared on the Middle Volga by the 8th cent. and became known as the Eastern, Volga, or Kama Bulgars.
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 dominated the region from the 8th to 13th cent., when it was conquered by the Mongols of the Golden HordeGolden Horde, Empire of the,
Mongol state comprising most of Russia, given as an appanage to Jenghiz Khan's oldest son, Juchi, and actually conquered and founded in the mid-13th cent. by Juchi's son, Batu Khan, after the Mongol or Tatar (see Tatars) conquest of Russia.
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; their Tatar descendants, in turn, gradually replaced or absorbed the Bulgar population. Russian colonization followed the capture (1552) by Czar Ivan IV of the khanate of Kazan, the most powerful of the Tatar states emerging from the empire of the Golden Horde. The Tatar ASSR was organized in 1920 as one of the first autonomous areas established by the Soviet government. In 1990 a declaration of sovereignty was adopted, and in 1991 the republic declared itself independent. This declaration was recognized by no other state. The republic was not a signatory to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that established the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2015 est. pop. 143,888,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The largest country in the world by area, Russia is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus,
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), but it signed a power-sharing treaty with Russian government in 1994. Russian legislation (2003) forced a renegotiation of the treaty; a new treaty was finally ratified in 2007.

References in periodicals archive ?
President Berdimuhamedov will meet with President of Tatarstan Rustam Minnikhanov.
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In a statement, the Ministry of Entrepreneur Development said he would represent the government at the 11th International Economic Summit themed 'Russia - Islamic World: Kazan Summit 2019' during the period held under the patronage of the President of Tatarstan.
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The President of Tatarstan and his accompanying delegation will participate in a forum organized by General Union of Chambers of Commerce on Monday.
Both leaders wished to cultivate trade and economic relations between Pakistan and Tatarstan. Shahbaz Sharif pointed out that the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) has been offering new opportunities to expand relations between Pakistan and Tatarstan.
This is first delegation of any kind from Pakistan to Tatarstan have 3.8m population.
The Iranian ambassador, for his part, underlined the importance of the two countries' relations, and said, "The first meeting for scientific and technological cooperation between Iran and Tatarstan will be held in Moscow in September."
The rating confirmation is triggered by the successful completion of Tatarstan's and SINEK management's plan to increase the guarantee on OAO Svyazinvestneftekhim's (SINEK, Ba2 review for downgrade) $250 million bond due in August 2015, which is unconditionally and irrevocably guaranteed by the republic.
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