Tatarstan


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Tatarstan

(tăt'ərstăn`, –stän`),

Tatar Republic

(tä`tər, tətär`), or

Tataria

(tətär`ēə), republic (1990 est. pop. 3,660,000), 26,255 sq mi (68,000 sq km), E European Russia, in the middle Volga and lower Kama river valleys. KazanKazan
, city (1989 est. pop. 1,094,000), capital of Tatarstan, E European Russia, on the Volga. It is a major historic, cultural, industrial, and commercial center. Manufactures include chemicals, explosives, electrical equipment, building materials, consumer goods, and furs.
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 is the capital; other important cities are Almetevsk, Leninogorsk, and Bugulma. The low, rolling plain that makes up most of the republic's territory yields fodder crops, wheat and other cereals, sugar beets, sunflowers, and flax. The republic is a leading Russian oil and natural-gas producer and the starting point for a pipeline to Eastern Europe. There are also important deposits of brown coal, limestone, gypsum, dolomite, and marl. Lumbering and food, leather, oil refining, and fur processing are major Tatar industries. Manufactures include machinery, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The Volga, Kama, Belaya, and Vyatka rivers are important for both transportation and irrigation. There are several hydroelectric stations.

Turko-Tatars make up around 50% of the population, and most live in rural areas. Russians, generally urban, constitute some 40%, and there are Chuvash, Udmurt, Mari, and Mordovian minorities. Sunni Islam is the chief religion.

BulgarsBulgars, Eastern
, Turkic-speaking people, who possessed a powerful state (10th–14th cent.) at the confluence of the Volga and the Kama, E European Russia. The Bulgars appeared on the Middle Volga by the 8th cent. and became known as the Eastern, Volga, or Kama Bulgars.
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 dominated the region from the 8th to 13th cent., when it was conquered by the Mongols of the Golden HordeGolden Horde, Empire of the,
Mongol state comprising most of Russia, given as an appanage to Jenghiz Khan's oldest son, Juchi, and actually conquered and founded in the mid-13th cent. by Juchi's son, Batu Khan, after the Mongol or Tatar (see Tatars) conquest of Russia.
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; their Tatar descendants, in turn, gradually replaced or absorbed the Bulgar population. Russian colonization followed the capture (1552) by Czar Ivan IV of the khanate of Kazan, the most powerful of the Tatar states emerging from the empire of the Golden Horde. The Tatar ASSR was organized in 1920 as one of the first autonomous areas established by the Soviet government. In 1990 a declaration of sovereignty was adopted, and in 1991 the republic declared itself independent. This declaration was recognized by no other state. The republic was not a signatory to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that established the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2005 est. pop. 143,420,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The country is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the west; by Georgia
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), but it signed a power-sharing treaty with Russian government in 1994. Russian legislation (2003) forced a renegotiation of the treaty; a new treaty was finally ratified in 2007.

References in periodicals archive ?
We will remind, deliveries are carried out within the framework of the Agreement concluded between the ministries of agriculture and foodstuffs of Dagestan and Tatarstan.
Around 85% of direct risk comprises RUB25 billion low-cost budget loans from Tatarstan, which were allocated to infrastructure development in preparation for Universiade 2013, hosted by the city.
Aitmatov told about how the shooting of the film devoted to his father's 90th anniversary took place in two districts of the Republic of Tatarstan - Kukmorsky and Atninsky.
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Head of the Agency of Investment Development of Tatarstan, Taliya Minullina, disclosed details of the development.
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She opined that Tatarstan is one of the most active federal subjects of Russia in business relations with the USA.
Sanayee also pointed to the export of Iran's dairy products to Russia, and expressed the hope that Tatarstan and other republics on the banks of River Volga would take part in serious trade interactions with Iran.
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Born in Uzbekistan and raised in the Republic of Tatarstan, the leggy stunner arrives in the classic model-off-duty uniform: black-on-black, vertiginous heels, a biker jacket, and skinny leather pants.
President of Tatarstan RE-stem Minnihanov and the Prime Minister Ildar Halikov also were ready at the event.
Kazan, June 7 -- President of Tatarstan Rustam Minnikhanov warmly welcomed Ambassador of Sri Lanka to the Russian Federation Udayanga Weeratunga in the Presidential Palace in Tatarstan's capital Kazan.