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Taxila(tăk`sĭlŭ), archaeological site of three successive cities, near Rawalpindi, Pakistan. There between the 7th cent. B.C. and the 7th cent. A.D. was a flourishing city, famous as an ancient seat of learning. It was occupied (326 B.C.) by Alexander the Great, became prosperous under the empire of Aśoka, and was overrun (c.1st–2d cent. A.D.) by the Kushans. It was a center of Buddhist studies and was visited in the 7th cent. by Hsüan-tsangHsüan-tsang
, 605?–664, Chinese Buddhist scholar and translator. He early entered monastic life and later traveled in China, teaching and studying. Between 629 and 645 he made a pilgrimage to India in search of authentic scriptures.
..... Click the link for more information. . There are remains of Buddhist stupas and monasteries as well as sculpture of the Gandharan school of art.
in ancient times, a city located in the northwestern part of the Hindustan Peninsula, 35 km from the present-day city of Rawalpindi in Pakistan. Taxila was at first the capital of the Gan-dhara state; in the third and second centuries B.C., it was the administrative center of the northwestern part of the Mauryan empire. The oldest archaeological layer of Taxila dates from the sixth century B.C.
Taxila was a major trading and crafts center and a crossroad of Indian, Hellenic, Iranian, and Middle Asian cultures. It was also a center of ancient Indian science and education. In the second half of the fifth century, Taxila was severely damaged by Hephthalite invasions; during the seventh century it was gradually abandoned by its inhabitants. Excavations begun in 1913 have made it possible to trace the city’s uninterrupted history for more than a thousand years. These excavations have yielded valuable materials for the study of numerous aspects of ancient Indian life.
REFERENCESIl’in, G. F. Drevnii indiiskii gorod Taksila. Moscow, 1958.
Marshall, J. Taxila, vols. 1–3. Cambridge, England, 1951.