This range of cone and ovule morphology within the family, progressing toward the Podocarpus condition, shows a parallel to cone reduction in the Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae (cf.
In Sciadopityaceae and most of the traditional Taxodiaceae (Farjon & Garcia, 2003; Takaso & Tomlinson, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992), an ovuliferous scale bearing numerous ovules can be recognized, although they are partly concealed even at the time of pollination (Fig.
America and New Caledonia Taxodiaceae 9/16 Bihemispheric, E.
Group 1 Conifers: Cupressaceae, Sciadopityaceae, Taxodiaceae
Cupressus, Sciadopitys, Taxodium, Cunninghamia, and Cryptomeria, all genera belonging to or closely related to the Taxodiaceae (Brunsfeld et al.
The ten remaining genera of ancient conifers representing the Cheirolepidiaceae, Ullmanniaceae, and Voltziaceae (Mapes & Rothwell, 1991; Miller, 1977) were analyzed first with group 1, consisting of the Majonicaceae, Taxodiaceae, Sciadopityaceae, and Cupressaceae, using Ernestiodendron as the outgroup, and then with group 2, consisting of the Majonicaceae plus Pinus, Araucaria, Podocarpus, and Cephalotaxus, using both Ernestiodendron and Moyliostrobus as the outgroup.
Except for the Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae, in which there is considerable variation from genus to genus, modern families are clearly distinguished by their seed cone structure.
1993) found the genus to have a sister-group relationship with Cephalotaxus and both grouped with Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae, Sciadopityaceae, and Araucariaceae.
Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Sciadopityaceae, Taxodiaceae
Further support for this treatment comes from alternative positions of Sciadopitys in 7 of the 17 equally parsimonious trees when Moyliostrobus is used as the outgroup, either diverging from an unresolved polytomy or associated with other Majonicaceae and Taxodiaceae.
Most current authors regard Sciadopitys as closely related to the Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae yet different enough to be classified in a separate family (Hart, 1987; Price & Lowenstein, 1989).
The combination of Cryptorneria and Cunninghamia as sister taxa and their branching [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 8 OMITTED] from a position basal to the Dolmitia-Sciadopitys-Cupressus-Taxodium subclade suggests that the Taxodiaceae may have had a biphyletic origin, because the different genera appear to have originated from different Paleozoic ancestors within the Majonicaceae.