(6) Other useful surveys of the history of teaching machines
are Fry (1963) and Vargas and Vargas (1992).
As a teaching machine
, the computer presents principles and theories step-by-step and allows the student to apply them.
An NDEA survey during the 1961-62 school year indicated that 80% of the public schools were using programmed materials and that only 12% of this use involved teaching machines
. Among the schools using any kind of programmed instruction, 57% did so "on a limited or trial basis," while 43% used it for "regular instruction." These figures seem quite high, since "regular instruction" involves grouping youngsters by age and moving them ahead in unison, one grade at a time, while programmed instruction requires that students work independently, a process most schools are not organized to accommodate.
The result is Project Magenta, a team of Google researchers who are teaching machines
to create not only their own music but also to make so many other forms of art, including sketches, videos and jokes.
He's published dozens of papers demonstrating clever ways of teaching machines
to understand and interact with the world.
So-called deep learning, a branch of AI that specializes in teaching machines
to learn by themselves, is also transforming the capability of speech recognition, computer vision and analytical algorithms used in autonomous vehicle technologies.
: LEARNING FROM THE INTERSECTION OF EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY considers how attempts to automate instruction have posed challenges in the past, and how entrepreneurs who developed various instructional technologies have made great headway in enhancing classrooms with machines.
The program that time also included presentations on teaching machines
and a report on credentialing.
. Learning From the Intersection of Education and Technology
For instance, expensive teaching machines
cannot be bought for every school.
Pask was involved with research on teaching machines