6) Other useful surveys of the history of teaching machines
are Fry (1963) and Vargas and Vargas (1992).
An NDEA survey during the 1961-62 school year indicated that 80% of the public schools were using programmed materials and that only 12% of this use involved teaching machines
The program that time also included presentations on teaching machines
and a report on credentialing.
Skinner, and their teaching machines
and how companies were formed to address perceived deficits in the educational system in the 1960s; what happened when computer scientists took the reins of teaching machines
from psychologists and created machines like PLATO, the Logo programming language, CD-ROMs, and tutoring systems; the role of the internet, including learning management systems, immersive experiences like simulations and Second Life, the Khan Academy, e-learning, and MOOCs (massive open online courses); and issues in designing future teaching machines
For instance, expensive teaching machines
cannot be bought for every school.
Pask was involved with research on teaching machines
At the Public School, robotic teaching machines
program children on Mars to be model citizens.
These teaching machines
can instruct students in subjects such as dance, music, vocabulary, and foreign languages.
1999 Neal Lerner, "Drill Pads, Teaching Machines
, Programmed Texts: Origins of Instructional Technology In Writing Centers"
They are now required to function as automatons as they present scripted lessons, follow pacing schedules, narrow the curriculum to those few areas tested on the state assessments, and, in general, limit their professional lives to activities that could be performed by teaching machines
or computer programs.
It would mean teachers would have to be able to think rather than just being teaching machines
Skinner promoted the use of teaching machines
and programmed textbooks.