At neutral pH, most of bacterial cell walls possess an overall negative charge from carboxyl and amino groups as well as from phosphate groups present in teichoic acids
(2009)  who demonstrated that cell components such as teichoic acids
are the possible binding sites for AFB1.
are the negative charged polymers constituted with polyol phosphate that linked to the peptidoglycan [122,123].
also play key role on [AFB.sub.1] binding by bacteria (Hernandez-Mendoza et al., 2009).
It is a partially deacylated polymer of (3-1, 6-N-acetylglucosamine, which, with the other polymers such as teichoic acids
and proteins, can form a major part of the extracellular matrix.
Another 29 reviews consider such topics as mechanisms of acid resistance in Escherichia coli, microbial contributions to phosphorus cycling in eutrophic lakes and wastewater, wall teichoic acids
of Gram-positive bacteria, biological consequences and advantages of asymmetric bacterial growth, prions and the potential transmissibility of protein misfolding diseases, and the wonderful world of archaeal viruses.
In the Gram-positive bacteria, the cell wall is thick (15-80 nanometers), consisting of several layers of peptidoglycan complexed with molecules called teichoic acids
. In the Gram-negative bacteria, the cell wall is relatively thin (10 nanometers) and is composed of a single layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by a membranous structure called the outer membrane [2,6,22,32].
Structural characterization of teichoic acids
from Lactobacillus brevis.
The bacterial cell wall consists of a thick multilayered sacculus made of peptidoglycan (PG), decorated with teichoic acids
(wall teichoic acids
(WTA) and/or lipoteichoic acids (LTA)), exopolysaccharides (EPS), proteinaceous filaments called pili, and proteins that are anchored to the cell wall through different mechanisms (Figure 1).
This has been attributed mainly to the abundance of teichoic acids
in the Gram positive peptidoglycan layer and the fact that the peptidoglycan layer in Gram negative bacteria is hidden behind the outer membrane which has a lower binding capacity (Beveridge 1988).
 Weidenmaier, C., and Peschel, A., 2008, "Teichoic acids
and related cell-wall glycopolymers in Gram-positive physiology and host interactions," Nat.
The cell wails of pneumococci contain special polymers, called teichoic acids
, that are equipped with phosphocholine groups and induce a characteristic choline architecture on the cell walls.