Meteorological information is often obtained by means of telemetry. A number of meteorological telemetry systems are used for this purpose; such systems are based on the principles of telemechanics (see).
The development of radio telemetry systems and the use of such systems for investigating the upper layers of the atmosphere began in 1930 with the invention of the radiosonde. Radio telemetry systems are used to carry out temperature and wind measurements at altitude in all countries of the world. A different type of meteorological telemetry system is that involving the use of automatic radio-meteorological stations. Such stations are set up in regions that are not easily accessible—for example, on arctic ice or in mountainous areas. The first automatic radio-meteorological stations were developed in the USSR in the early 1930’s. Ground telemetering stations using wire communication links up to ten km long are employed in the meteorological network, especially at airfields. Such meteorological stations appeared in the USSR in the late 1950’s.
The investigation of the upper atmosphere by means of rockets began in the USA in the early 1940’s. In the USSR, rocket sounding with the use of radio telemetry systems has been carried out on a systematic basis since the early 1950’s. The measuring and transmitting apparatus is lifted by a rocket to an altitude of more than 100 km. As it descends on a parachute, the apparatus transmits data on conditions in the atmosphere. The data are received by a ground station. An important role is also played by radio telemetry systems involving the use of artificial earth satellites. The measuring and transmitting equipment is carried by the satellite, and the measurement information is sent to ground stations. Such systems can provide on a planet-wide scale information on, for example, the condition of land and ocean surfaces, cloud cover, and radiation from the atmosphere, land, and water.
REFERENCESIl’in, V. A. Teleupravlenie i teleizmerenie, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.
Sistemy polucheniia i peredachi meteorologicheskoi informatsii. Leningrad, 1971.
Vaisman, G. M., and Iu. S. Verle. Osnovy radiotekhniki i radiosistemy v gidrometeorologii. Leningrad, 1970.
Avtomaticheskaia stantsiia KRAMS. Leningrad, 1974.
Razrabotka i ekspluatatsiia avtomaticheskikh meteorologicheskikhstantsii: Trudy II Mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma. Leningrad, 1974.
M. S. STERNZAT