a customhouse that handled a large share of Russia’s trade in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was founded in 1749 near the mouth of the Don in what is now the city of Rostov-on-Don. The customhouse took its name from the Temernik, a right tributary of the Don.
The customhouse and the associated port were of great economic importance for southeastern Russia in the late 18th century. The monopolistic Russian Constantinople Company was established at the port. Exports passing through the customhouse included iron, cast iron, butter, caviar, linen, and hides; goods imported by Turkish, Greek, and Italian merchants included silks, cottons, various metal wares, incense, and fruits. In 1758, goods worth 86,900 rubles passed through the customhouse; by 1762 the figure had increased to 240,200 rubles.
In 1776 the Temernik Customhouse was moved to Taganrog, but in 1836 it was moved back to Rostov-on-Don. With the opening of the Voronezh-Rostov-on-Don railroad line in 1871, the customhouse became a major center for the export of grain.
REFERENCESRigel’man, A. I. Rostov-na-Donu 150 let naiad. Rostov-on-Don, 1918.
Pokrovskii, S. A. Vneshniaia torgovlia i vneshniaia torgovaia politika Rossii. Moscow, 1947. Pages 124–26.
Zolotov, V. A. Khlebnyi eksport Rossii cherez pony Chernogo i Azovskogo morei v 60–90-e gody XIX v. Rostov-on-Don, 1966.
B. V. CHEBOTAREV