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(tĭmo͝or`) or


(tăm`ərlān), c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He was the son of a tribal leader, and he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz KhanJenghiz Khan
or Genghis Khan
, Mongolian Chinggis Khaan, 1167?–1227, Mongol conqueror, originally named Temujin. He succeeded his father, Yekusai, as chieftain of a Mongol tribe and then fought to become ruler of a Mongol confederacy.
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. With an army composed of Turks and Turkic-speaking Mongols, remnants of the empire of the MongolsMongols
, Asian people, numbering about 6 million and distributed mainly in the Republic of Mongolia, the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China, and Kalmykia and the Buryat Republic of Russia.
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, Timur spent his early military career in subduing his rivals in what is now TurkistanTurkistan
or Turkestan
, historic region of central Asia. Western, or Russian, Turkistan extended from the Caspian Sea in the west to the Chinese frontier in the east and from the Aral-Irtysh watershed in the north to the borders of Iran and Afghanistan in the south.
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; by 1369 he firmly controlled the entire area from his capital at SamarkandSamarkand
, city (1991 pop. 395,000), capital of Samarkand region, in Uzbekistan, on the Trans-Caspian RR. It is one of the oldest existing cities in the world and the oldest of Central Asia.
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Campaigns he waged against Persia occupied him until 1387. By that time he had in his possession the lands stretching E from the Euphrates River. He advanced (1392) across the Euphrates, conquered the territory between the Caspian and Black seas, and invaded several of the Russian states. By weakening the Crimean Tatars he helped clear the way for the conquests of the grand duchy of Moscow. Timur abandoned some of his Russian conquests to return to Samarkand and invade (1398) India along the route of the Indus River. He took Delhi and brought the Delhi SultanateDelhi Sultanate,
refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India (1210–1526). It was founded after Muhammad of Ghor defeated Prithvi Raj and captured Delhi in 1192.
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 to an end, but he withdrew with little addition to his domain.

In 1400, Timur ravaged Georgia and proceeded to the Levant, where he took Aleppo and Baghdad. His next war was fought in Asia Minor against the Ottoman Turks, and in 1402, at Angora, he captured their sultan, Beyazid I, who, contrary to popular belief, was well treated. Timur died while planning an invasion of China. His tomb at Samarkand was long known to archaeologists, but it is only recently that his skeleton, buried in a deep crypt, was found.

Timur's reputation is that of a cruel conqueror. After capturing certain cities he slaughtered thousands of the defenders (perhaps 80,000 at Delhi) and built pyramids of their skulls. Although a Muslim, he was scarcely more merciful to those of his own faith than to those he considered infidels. His positive achievements were the encouragement of art, literature, and science and the construction of vast public works. He had little hope that his vast conquests would remain intact, and before his death he arranged for them to be divided among his sons. The TimuridsTimurids
, dynasty founded by Timur (or Tamerlane). After the death of Timur (1405) there was a struggle for power over his empire, which then extended from the Euphrates River to the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and Indus rivers.
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 are the line of rulers descended from him. Christopher Marlowe's play Tamburlaine luridly recounts his conquests.


See biographies by H. Hookham (1962) and B. F. Manz (1989); J. H. Sanders, tr., Tamerlane (tr. of late 14th-century Arabic work by A. Ibn Arabshah, 1936).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Temirlan Tokobekov is the son of Aliyarbek Abjaliyev, a member of the parliament.
On July 3 during the pro-Atambayev rally in Bishkek, Deputy Chairman of the SDPK Kunduz Joldubayeva said that Temirlan Sultanbekov, an activist studying at a university in Moscow, was banned from leaving the country.
Aibek Kaliyev, Nurlan Sadykov and Temirlan Braimkulov were sentenced to 2 years and 6 months in prison with fine in the amount of 100,000 soms.
The parties in the trial of former National Energy Holding Chief Aibek Kaliyev, ex-director of the Bishkek combined heat and power plant modernization Temirlan Brimkulov, ex-deputy director general of Electric Stations Berdibek Borkoev, ex-director general of Electric Stations Uzak Kydyrbaev, former director of the Bishek combined heat and power plant and others are presenting oral arguments at the Pervomaiskiy district court.
8 defendants of the case are: ex-PMs Sapar Isakov and Jantoro Satybaldiyev; ex-Energy Minister Osmonbek Artykbayev; former head of the National Energy Holding Aibek Kaliev; former deputy head of the holding Jenishbek Nazarov; ex-CEO of the Electric Stations Salaidin Avazov; ex-executive director of the CHP modernization project Temirlan Brimkulov; and former finance minister Olga Lavrova.
Case defendants are Kaliyev, Temirlan Brimkulov, Berdibek Borkoyev, Uzak Kydyraliyev, Omurkul uulu Nurlan, Nurlan Sadyrkov and Nurgazy Kurmanbekov.
He voiced this information during the proceeding of defendants Aibek Kaliyev, Temirlan Brimkulov, Berdibek Borkoyev, Uzak Kydyraliyev, Omurkul uulu Nurlan, Nurlan Sadyrkov and Nurgazy Kurmanbekov at the Pervomay district court of Bishkek on Feb 19.
"The crystal voice of Begimai (Saltanat Bakayeva), the daughter of the village leader Bazarbai (Temirlan Smanbekov), who forbade her to marry Esen (Omurbek Izrailov), is especially beautiful," notes Linden.
She plays Begimai, the strong-willed daughter of village chief Bazarbai (Temirlan Smanbekov), who has forbidden her from marrying Esen (Omurbek Izrailov).
"Charges against Sapar Isakov, Jantoro Satybaldiev, Osmonbek Artykbayev, Aybek Kaliev, Salaydin Avazov, Joldoshbek Nazarov, Temirlan Brimkulov, and Olga Lavrova accused of power abuse and corruption were substantiated and proved by the evidence," the General Prosecutor's Office said.
- ex-executive director of the Modernization Management Group of the Bishkek CHPP Temirlan Brimkulov ,
The third place was shared between Shamet Temirlan of Kazakhstan and Alexey Kushnir of Ukraine.